The notion of polar flips seems controversial because there is so little apparent geological evidence for an event which would seem to have profound impact. The evidence however is there. While not well understood, there are plenty of references in history to this phenomenon. Immanuel Velikovsky, in his classic Worlds in Collision, listed at least sixty such historical references, although many of them refer to major “wobbles” in the earth’s axis rather an actual flip. At least five of the Greek classical writers referenced the tilt of the axis in their works. In their works, they discuss two such events, one caused by extreme heat (solar flaring) and another caused by unknown forces. While these references are not very specific in terms of the time at which they occurred, there are enough clues in that list of sixty-five references to help us understand that the phenomenon was experienced by the ancients in Tihuancu at the time of the third pre-Deluge flood (10,700 BCE), the Great Deluge itself (9,650 BCE), as well as by the Egyptians, probably as the end of the Old Kingdom and beginning of the Middle Kingdom. Ancient historians generally alluded to ‘multiple’ events of this nature. According to Pomponius Mela of the first Century:
‘The Egyptians pride themselves on being the most ancient people in the world. In their authentic annals…one may read that since they have been in existence, the course of the stars has changed direction four times, and the sun has set twice in the part of the sky where it rises today.’
Plato as well warned his audiences:
Of the portents recorded in ancient tales many did happen and will happen again…. I mean the change in the rising and setting of the sun and other heavenly bodies, how in those times they used to set in the quarter where they now rise, and used to rise where they now set….
The Egyptians recorded – with two western sun rise periods -at least four polar flip events, which provides a basis for the “dualism” of their celestial gods, the gods of the two horizons. Evidence, however, suggests two additional polar flips (or major alterations in the locations of the physical poles) which happened before the time of the Egyptians (assuming Egyptian records went back to circa 10,700 BCE, which some researchers refer to as the “first Time” or Zep Tepi.) The first flip is associated with the end of the reign of Ouranus at the end of the First Age of Man. This would reflect the myth of Ouranos swallowing and hiding his children (12,100 BCE). In this instance, Ouranos is not a ‘solar god’ but a ‘sky god,’ and the rolling of the Earth is what causes the children of Ouranos to disappear from site. A second reversal occurs circa 11,300 BC, which would reflect the myths of Khronos castrating his father Ouranos and releasing the Children of Ouranos, or Isis stealing the powers of Ra to prevent the destruction of the universe because Ra has grown old and weak (from the Turin Papyrus). In the latter case, the flip appears to have been preceded by a pair of meteors hitting the earth – at least according to myth. Those are the two flips which would have occurred prior to the records of the Egyptians priests, which begin at around 10,750 BCE.
There is a third period of drift starting circa 10,400 BCE that does not result in a complete flip, which would best relate to Zeus castrating Khronos. This period also corresponds to the Battle of the Gods, in Norse mythology referred to as Ragnarök. Ragnarök actually means “the darkness of the gods” from regin (gods) and rökr (darkness), but may, more correctly derive from regn (rain) and rök (smoke or dust). Prior to that third event, the sun is reported to have risen in the west, and no record can be found which goes back further in time to suggest at which point that alignment was initiated.
According to a short fragment of a historical drama by Sophocles (Atreus), the sun rises in the east only since its course was reversed. ‘Zeus … changed the course of the sun, causing it to rise in the east and not in the west.’” 
With the sun rise changing from the east to west, and back to the east, the walls at Tihuanacu were rebuilt, both east and west -as noted by Posnansky – to reflect the observation of sunrise in a new direction. The ‘Western Gallery” of the Kalasasaya Temple was modified with an extended ‘balcony’, after which the east wall was rebuilt. The same practice would be seen at Stonehenge 10,000 years later, with the Q-R Ring system started to be facing west, only to be abandoned fifty years later for the current ring which faces the eastern sunrise.
Velikovsky provides two ancient references which suggest the first Egyptian ‘recorded’ occasion of a polar flip was at the onset of the Great Deluge: 1) the Talmud, and 2) Inca legend. The Book of Jasher represents a third source.
In Tractate Sanhedrin of the Talmud it is said: ‘Seven days before the deluge, the Holy One changed the primeval order and the sun rose in the west and set in the east.
During this flip, the ancestors of the Incas recorded the event as taking five days, when witnessed from the mountain of Ancasmarca (18 miles south of Cuzco, Peru and 300 miles northwest of Tihuanacu). The event resulted in 5 days of darkness, meaning that during the earth’s rollover, Peru was situated near or at one of the Poles, where nights can extend up to six months. Similarly, Mexico experienced 4 days of darkness. Given that the extended night at the pole can span 25˚ of latitude, both regions could have experienced extended polar darkness for comparable periods (but not necessarily the same duration.)
In the manuscripts of Avila and Molina, who collected the traditions of the Indians of the New World, it is related that the sun did not appear for five days, a cosmic collision of stars preceded the cataclysm; people and animals tried to escape to mountain caves. ‘Scarcely had they reached there, when the sea, breaking out of bounds following a terrifying shock, began the rise of the pacific coast. But as the sea rose, filling the valleys and the plains around, the mountain of Ancasmarca rose too, like a ship on the waves. During the five days that this cataclysm lasted, the sun did not show its face and the earth remained in darkness.’ 
In the Mexican annals it is stated that the world was deprived of light and the sun did not reappear for a fourfold night.
On that day, the Lord caused the whole earth to shake, and the sun was darkened, and the foundations of the world raged, and the whole earth was moved violently, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder roared, and all the fountains of the earth were broken up, such as was not known to the inhabitants before….
The Papyrus of Ani, as part of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, reported that the celestial order had not been disturbed ‘since the time of Osiris’: “Great is maāt, the mighty and the unalterable and it hath never been broken since the time of Osiris.” Over the centuries, maāt became known as the spiritual order rather than its original meaning of a ‘celestial order.’ This is because, as noted in the Book of the Dead, (which Budge dates at about 4,000 BCE) there had been no disorder in the skies since the time of Osiris. The ‘time of Osiris’ would cover the Second and Third Age of Man 12,000 to 9,650 BCE, because Osiris was viewed as a god under continual rebirth beginning with Haroëris and ending with Horus the Younger. Hence, between 9,650 and circa 2,400 BCE, maāt was stable. Interestingly, it is not until after the Book of the Dead is written that the Egyptians experience another polar flip event.
The last polar flip is reported by the Egyptians in several documents, but eludes dating. Documents reflect on events of an earlier period -but that period is not well defined. In the 19th Dynasty, the Papyrus Anastasi IV was written during the time of Pharaoh Sety II who reigned from 1200 BC to 1194 BC and reflected events no earlier than 1900 BCE. It suggested a scenario where Egypt was in the southern hemisphere, and the seasons are reversed
The Egyptian papyrus known as Papyrus Anastasi IV contains a complaint about gloom and the absence of solar light; it also says: ‘The winter is come as (instead of) summer, the months are reversed and the hours disordered.
During the 18th Dynasty under Queen Hatshepsut, who assumed power circa 1512 BC, or, as late as 1479 BC., the tomb of royal architect Senmut documented the polar flip with a ceiling mural
In the tomb of Senmut, the architect of Queen Hatshepsut, a panel on the ceiling shows the celestial sphere with ‘a reversed orientation’ or the southern sky. The end of the Middle Kingdom antedated the time of Queen Hatshepsut by several centuries. The astronomical ceiling presenting a reversed orientation must have been a venerated chart, made obsolete a number of centuries earlier. ‘A characteristic feature of the Senmut ceiling is the astronomically objectionable orientation of the southern panel,’ The center of this panel is occupied by the Orion-Sirius group, in which Orion appears west of Sirius instead of east. ‘The orientating of the southern panel is such that a person in the tomb looking at it has to lift his head and face north, not south.’ ‘With the reversed orientation of the south panel, Orion, the most conspicuous constellation of the southern sky, appeared to be moving eastward, i.e., in the wrong direction.’ 
Also during the 18th Dynasty, one finds multiple reports from the Book of Joshua and Book of Jasher that the ‘sun stood still for a day’ while Joshua and the Israelites battled the Amorites.
And he said in the sight of Israel. Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. So the sun stood still in the midst of the heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day (Joshua 10: 12-13).
Records of that period show that letters were sent by Abdi-Heba trying enlist assistance in fighting Joshua’s army, and those letters were most likely sent by Adoni-Zedek or Adoni-Bezek to Amenhotep II, who reigned from 1425 to 1,398 BCE. The learning here is that in the timeframe of a clearly documented polar flip, or at its beginning or end, there is an instability and slowness in the flip. In the example of 9,650 BCE flip, the duration is five days. In the case of Joshua, one might assume the sun standing still was part of a larger instability documented on the ceiling in Senmut’s temple prior to Joshua’s battle. It may be safer to conclude that the extended day experienced by Joshua was actually more a massive solar flare that extended lights as far south as the equator, as in the Carrington Event of 1859. There appears to be very strong correlation between solar flares greater than Carrington and geo-polar instability. This timeframe is reinforced by the unexplained abandonment of Stonehenge circa 1,600 BCE, which would have been about the time the stars and sun seem to have abandoned the Druid priests of Stonehenge. There is reason to believe that the period between 2345 BCE and 1400 BCE suffered two geo-polar migrations and extreme solar flaring.
There is a record from China that a “partial flip” or major wobble in the earth’s axis put China at one of the poles for 10 days circa 2,300 BCE. The 10 day ‘sunless’ event recorded in China by Emperor Yao corresponds to another global catastrophe:
“At this distance of time, the overthrow of the Old Kingdom at the end of the Sixth Dynasty has all the appearance of being sudden and complete…. Recent research has attributed the abrupt nature of the collapse to contemporary changes in the climate of Africa and the Near East. With the cessation of the Neolithic Wet Phase about 2350 BC, the spectre of famine begins to haunt the region. An isolated block from the Unas Causeway, showing piteously emaciated people weakened by famine and dying of hunger, is an early portent of the evils to come. Egypt was protected from the worst of such irregular calamities by its unique irrigation system. It is fairly evident, however, that a change in the pattern of monsoon rains falling on the Abyssinian plateau could lead to a series of low Niles. Hot winds from the south apparently accompanied this climatic aberration. There are veiled references to the sun being obscured by dust storm: ‘the sun is occluded and will not shine that men may see… none may know that it is midday, and the sun will cast no shadow.’ The high winds assisted the denudation by creating dust bowls and shifting sand dunes on to the cultivation. The whole political and economic system of Egypt would have been discredited in a very short time. The king-lists refer to many pharaohs during the three decades of the Seventh and Eighth Dynasties, each ruling for a year or two and disappearing without trace.
These events circa 2300 BCE reinforce the findings of George Dodwell’s analysis of 85 ancient gnomons, suggesting that in the year 2345 BCE, the earth shifted its axis:
“The curve is therefore a certain and sure mathematical demonstration that in the year 2345 B.C., the earth’s axis was suddenly displaced by a major impact; and the curve shown in Figure 3 is a curve of the partial recovery of the earth to a state of equilibrium, at its normal inclination and conditions, as reached in 1850 A.D.”
The timing of this event provided a basis for the resurrection of the cult of Sebek in the 12th Dynasty of Egypt: 1,991 BCE to 1,802 BCE. Sebek, as will be explained in Chapters XV and XVI was a primeval god of the western sunrise. An earlier celestial event such as described by the extended duration of night for the Chinese circa 2,300 BCE would have contributed to a revival of fears and concerns in Egypt about the ability of the Bull of Heaven to maintain Ma’at, (order in the universe) and raise fears concerning the return of Sebek, also known as the Son of Typhon. As ‘Son of Typhon,’ Sebek was the sun god born from the demon nebula known also as Seth and Tiamat.
For Egypt and all of Mesopotamia to experience this type of climactic change in the same timeframe suggests China was flipped towards the South Pole (somewhere between 70° and 90°), and in doing so, was accompanied by a shift of Egypt and Mesopotamia to being just south of the Equator. This would explain the heat and drought. What Egypt experienced was widespread, and affected all of central Asia and Mesopotamia.
I see however that the evidence of a great cataclysm between 2200 BC and 2190 BC is so compelling that on this basis we can’t dismiss it. On the other hand, Courty is right in her theory of a major occurrence which I would date between 2350 BC and 2340 BC. When the External Collapse Theory (ECT) was first introduced in the late 1980’s or early 1990’s, the proponents talked about an event ca. 2300 BC. The 1994 SIS Conference talked about a 2200 BC event. In the Cambridge Conference 1997 and elsewhere also there has been an accumulating evidence of some event around 2350 BC besides the 2200 BC event. I suggest that there really were two disparate events, a local one in Near East 2350 BC and 150 years later, 2200-2190 BC, a global one.
As the puzzle comes together, the scenario of multiple geo-polar migrations, similar to that which ended the Second Age of Man becomes the most promising explanation.
The issue raised by the experience of the Third Millennium BCE is that polar drift can be as extreme and dramatic as polar flips. Charles Hapgood, in his classic study of polar drift documents how drift can range up to 30˚ of latitude, and 1800 miles from the center mass pole. His documentation is summarized in a map of drift, seen in Figure 69: Hapgood’s Map of Polar Drift. His map shows a major directional shift of the pole at the point in time of the Great Deluge, with a migration period of 5,000 years for the most recent major shift. When the ancient historians report the sun has risen in the west twice and the ‘course of the stars has changed direction four times,’ those changes need to be put in the context of this polar drift. Two flips create “four” 180˚ migration events, along with an additional 4 drifts of 30˚ or less, as per Hapgood. By example, while Hapgood shows a migration of the pole form 72˚ South to 60˚ South, the map does not demonstrate that within that migration, the south pole had temperate climate on three occasions during the Pleistocene Age, meaning there was significant meandering of the drift during a major drift phase. With this understanding, the course of the stars – as seen from Earth – has seemingly been altered a number of times during the last 15,000 years. There is irrefutable evidence that a fossil forest existed a mere 5˚ of latitude from the South Pole, which dates to 2-3 million years ago, suggesting the drift process –while irregular –is persistent.
Hapgood’s work is reinforced and further detailed by the work of Nils-Axel Mörner, former head of the Paleogeophysics and Geodynamics Department at Stockholm University. Mörner used sea bed and sediment cores to study the geomagnetic alignment of the particles, and an extensive period of geo-magnetic excursions between 12,750 BCE and 9,650 BCE which places geomagnetic north in various portions of the pacific, as far south as 40°. (See Figure 70). His work suggests at least three reversals during this period, with a 200° (9,650 BCE), a 180° jump (12,100 BCE) and a 360̊ flip (10,400 BCE) and several hundred years of intense drift, which may or may not hide a short-term flip (11,000 to 10,700 BCE.). What he noticed was that the rate of drift was extremely variable, noting a lot of variation within a particular year, and noting that some changes endured for up to fifty years. The fifty-year metric is interesting in that the Hebrew Exodus from Egypt would have occurred 40 years prior to Joshua’s Battle with the Amorites (with the sun standing still), and at the time of the Exodus, one of the Ten Plagues included three days of darkness. The three days of darkness was then followed by a massive tsunami wave that devastated the Red Sea area, as recorded by the Amalekites at Safa and Tehama in ancient Saudi Arabia. The tsunami was accompanied by massive storms of lightning and wind. The parting of the Red Sea in the legend of Moses is more about geo-polar migration than the explosive Thera Volcano in the Mediterranean, and the parting of the Red Sea explained by example of moving a large tub of water, and watching the resultant waves.
Mörner is not a believer in an actual ‘physical’ flip during the Gothenburg Excursion, but refers to his excursion points as “virtual.” That said, he did observer that a number of cores in his data base showed materials “not being found in the Swedish west coast.” That would suggest some type of physical displacement occurred during the excursion. As explained later, geo-magnetic and geo-polar flips are related but different. There are other distinguished representatives of the scientific community that have denied the significance of these flips.
“Alan Thompson, head of geomagnetism at the British Geological Survey, said during previous flips: “no worldwide shifting of continents or other planet-wide disasters occurred, as geoscientists can testify to from fossil and other records….Monika Korte, the scientific director of the Niemegk Geomagnetic Observatory at GFZ Potsdam in Germany, said: “It’s not a sudden flip, but a slow process, during which the field strength becomes weak, very probably the field becomes more complex and might show more than two poles for a while, and then builds up in strength and [aligns] in the opposite direction.”
In fact, to a large degree, the world’s scientific community does not support a theory of rapid polar flip. There is consensus that large interstellar dust clouds can cause geomagnetic reversals. There is also some acknowledgement that magnetic reversals can seriously deplete the ozone layer, and cause extinctions. To a large degree however, they say geomagnetic reversals – if they do occur -cannot occur rapidly. Some researchers disagree and believe there is a rollover of the earth.
Whatever the explanation, there seems no doubt that the Earth’s field is tied up in some way with the rotation of the planet. And this leads to the remarkable finding about the Earth’s rotation itself…the Earth’s axis of rotation has also changed. In other words, the planet has rolled about, changing the location of its geographical poles.
History tells us otherwise, over and over. While it is true that some geo-magnetic shifts are virtually un-noticeable, and occur over a long period of time, these reported excursions have been recorded to occur simultaneously with cataclysmic upheavals as recently as circa 2,200 BCE, 9,650 BCE, 10,400 BCE, 10,700 BCE and 12,100 BCE. There was a major extinction of numerous species during this time. Multiple civilizations have documented all of these and the ice and sediment cores support it. These dates match too closely to a timeline of mythology that records humankind’s witness to the rapid change in the location of the sun and stars. It has only been the inability or unwillingness of humankind to understand this message that allows this denial to continue. Electromagnetic reversal and polar drift are different but related phenomena, with the former relying on electro-magnetic fields and the latter relying on gravity. Both, however, are inextricably linked to the changes in location of the earth’s core and center mass. Center mass is a shifting point within the core, whose location shifts within the earth. These shifts, and the forces that cause them, are responsible for what the ancients viewed as the Battle of the Gods, and the birth and death of the gods.
Figure 70: Gothenburg Magnetic Excursion
Figure 71: Changing Perspective with Unchanging Rotation
It may be best to conclude that while geomagnetic reversal can occur without a geographical polar reversal, there is a separate phenomenon in which the globe actually rolls over. The former seems to be related more to the physics of the earth’s core, while the latter is more a function of gravitational forces in the solar system. The evidence suggests the two phenomena are related, but not the same.
One of the many gaps in understanding the history of the last 15,000 years is the inability to explain the end of the ice age and the beginning of an amazingly long stretch of stable weather. The ending of the Ice Age however was not a straightforward, global meltdown. The Southern Hemisphere started melting a couple thousand years before the Northern. When the Northern Hemisphere started to melt, the weather seemed to reverse itself for a thousand years, heading towards another Ice Age, and then reversed itself again.
“In providing a detailed record of the beginning and endings of all the glacial periods of the past 420,000 years, the Vostok core shows us that the world’s climate has almost always in a state of change over these 420 millennia. But until the Holocene it has always oscillated. The Holocene climate breaks through these boundaries. In duration, stability, degree of warming and concentration of greenhouse gases, the warming of the pas fifteen millennia exceeds any in the Vostok record. Civilization arose during a remarkably long summer. We still have no idea when, or how, that summer will end.”
Theories that attribute weather change to changes in orbital patterns –eccentricity, precession of the axes, and obliquity – and their effect on insolation (the amount of solar radiation per square meter based on the angle of the sun relative to earth), do not explain deglaciation, and a viable explanation for the end of the Ice Age eludes humankind. Contemplation of this shortcoming provides cause to reconsider the theory of polar wander/geo-polar migration, a phenomenon historians have on record from dozens of anthropological studies. Climate studies base their conclusions on ice cores from the North Pole and South Pole, with the assumption those locations are constant over time, which is generally -but not totally – true. The ancients left multiple records indicating that the poles wander and flip. If true, the insolation patterns would vary. In fact, the various stages of melt which marks the end of the Ice Age matches Hapgood’s model, and in a manner described in Volume II of Enoch and the Watchers, matches Enoch’s observations of the sky. When the Hudson Bay rolled up to the North Pole, as per Hapgood, the insolation over the Southern Hemisphere increased significantly, starting an early melt in the south. When the Hudson Bay dropped back down to its current location, insolation increased over the Northern Hemisphere. There was then a period of drift, explained by Nils-Axel Mörner’s data, which initiated the Older Dryas period of reglaciation. The end of the Ice Age is better explained by this model of polar drift and its subsequent alteration of insolation than any current model, none of which explains the end of the Ice Age with any degree of scientific consensus.
There has been no viable explanation yet provided in the history or geology books for this drift or flip phenomenon. To fill that gap, this book posits a Center Mass Theory of Polar Flips. The theory takes its foundation in the physics of three common phenomena: 1) the toy named tippe-top, which when spun, flips while spinning in the same direction, and then flips back, continuing to spin in the same direction, and 2) wheel balancing, and 3) extreme adjustments in the earth’s magnetic field which allow the earth’s inner core to reposition itself in the fluid outer core. Unexplained for many decades, the best explanation provided for the flipping of the tippe-top identified that the “flip” is caused by the ‘center mass’ of the spinning top dropping below the center curve (equator) of the top, which causes the initial flip. Concurrently, the “friction of the spin” pushes the center of the mass upwards, causing the top to seemingly self-correct. This model generally applies to the planet Earth, which has generally assumed to be “stable” with a relatively stable “center mass” point. The model suggests a polar flip is preceded by a major wobble in precession, in which center mass drops below the equator, which is followed by drift. Wobble alone, though. is not enough. There needs be an accompanying small geospatial change in the center mass location, due to either a change at the surface or at the inner core. Both are possible. Another possibility is alterations to the earth’s torque possibly caused by two massive meteors.
It is important to differentiate between geomagnetic excursions and drift. Drift results in a geomagnetic excursion, but the reverse is not necessarily true. One does find geomagnetic drift without polar drift on a regular basis, as the geomagnetic axis is close but not the same as the axis through the center mass. Hence, when Nils-Axel Mörner describes geomagnetic drift, it is possible there was no physical drift associated with it, but in fact, the mythology and legends of humankind suggest that Mörner’s data only substantiates physical drift.
Where the intuitive understanding of the earth’s stability (or instability) generally falls short is with the leverage required to create this stability/instability. For this, the wheel balancing model is appropriate. In this model, most readers should be able to acknowledge familiarity with the practice of balancing automobile wheels to eliminate wobble caused by imbalance. The explanation for wheel balancing deals with an instability similar to the earth’s wobble. The weight is not distributed perfectly around the earth. When the mass of the earth is shifted ever so slightly –such as with glacial melt, magma flow, volcanic dust, or shift of the earth’s inner core – the total momentum of the spinning earth keeps changing direction ever so slightly. That means the axis must keep exerting a force on the earth that keeps changing. That force, constantly changing direction, causes vibrations in the rest of the world – the wobble seen at the poles. In wheel balancing, a lead weight which weighs between .25 to three ounces counterbalances the wobble in a tire and wheel that weighs on average 40 pounds. (Passenger car tire plus rim can range from 25 to 70 pounds.) The ratio between the lead weight and the tire weight ranges from .015 to .00535, which suggests an extreme degree of leverage, where .25 to 3 ounces determines the balance of a 70-pound wheel. The variable in this equation is time, or the number of rotations required to generate a wobble. An imbalance will create a wobble which may not be experienced in one rotation, but may take up to several hundred rotations to generate the wobble. So it is with earth. The theory then is: shifts in the earth’s center mass introduce excessive wobble. Some shifts in the earths mass are significant enough to create either a large enough wobble to move the center mass of the earth below the equator, or just simply shift the center mass to the southern hemisphere. When the center mass drops below the equator, the earth will flip. The spin of the earth will, over time, provide the energy required to counterbalance the lower center mass, and move the center mass up until the earth flips back.
A major shift in the earth’s center mass was caused by the glaciers melting, shifting a large portion of the earth’s water to the southern hemisphere (4.719 kg, which is two-thirds of the weight of the North American ice melt). Volcanoes may or may not shift the center mass (depending on magnitude), but a massive volcano, of a magnitude of 7-9 (or series of eruptions over time of a lesser magnitude) can move 1014 to 1016 kg of magma into the atmosphere and out of a specific earth location. Two of the documented polar flips were preceded by massive flooding and volcanoes. In the instance of 10,700 BCE and 9,650 BCE, the flooding and volcanoes were near term. It is important to note that there is evidence to show that earthquakes in the magnitude of 7.5 or greater can amplify the wobble caused by precession. In the case of the flip documented circa 1,500 BCE to 1,200BCE, there was a series of three major volcanic events within a space of ten years (circa 1,458 BCE) which together, had close to the same magnitude as the volcanic events of 10,700 BCE and 9,650 BCE, as measured by dust in the ice cores, but the lesser volume of magma moved took longer to generate a flip. It is important to remember that the number of rotations required to generate a significant wobble could be in the hundreds or thousands, meaning a time lag between the cause and effect could be substantial.
To a very large degree, the understanding of polar flips lies with the movement of the earth’s inner core, wherein one finds the earth’s center mass. While the flip of 10,700 and 9,650 BCE may possibly be explained by a shift in center mass due to melting of the North American ice cap, the flip of the second millennium BC has no such event on the earth’s surface. On the other hand, all three flips seem to be associated with extreme solar flaring described as far more intense than the Carrington Event. If one pursues the assumption that extreme solar flaring is related to the cause of the polar flip, one must accept that its explanation is in the realm of theoretical astrophysics, and virtually any theory presented without the corresponding math will be critically dismissed by academic experts. As for the inner core of the Earth, the Center Mass theory speculates that an extreme solar flare- significantly greater than the Carrington Event -induces a change in the location of the earth’s inner core. One source indicates what ‘significantly greater’ means -that the solar flaring that ended the Younger Dryas left behind the ionization equivalent to “100 Carringtons.” According to Faraday’s Law, any change in the magnetic environment creates voltage, which affects the temperature of the inner core. Solar flares also modify the earth’s atmospheric pressure and temperature ever so modestly, but herein Archimedes’ principle of leverage takes hold. It is temperature and pressure that keep the inner core locked in position within the fluid outer core, but should that temperature and pressure change, a movement of a couple meters is feasible – and that is all the movement that is required to flip the spinning top. There is however, a third variable that may best explain movement of the inner core – the solar neutrino.
The sequence of events flows as follows:
- Prior to a solar flare, (33 to 40 hours prior) the sun starts to emit neutrinos. Solar neutrinos come in different categories (flavors), and can be emitted in different intensities based on 1) distance between the earth and sun, 2) the side of the sun which emits the neutrinos, 3) the magnitude of the flare. Magnitude is a critical variable, and the assumption needs to be that the magnitude of the flare is several orders of magnitude greater than the Carrington Event of 1859.
- The neutrinos which precede the solar flare are considered responsible for reducing the rate of radioactive decay in various isotopes. Reduced rates of decay associated with manganese-54,  chlorine-36 and carbon-14 have been attributed to solar flare neutrinos.
- Neutrinos are acknowledged to pass though the earth without difficulty, and it is assumed that neutrinos emitted by solar flares would pass through the earth (mantle, outer core and the earth’s inner core.) The primary reason why neutrinos were suspected was because the reduced rate of decay continued during the night, and neutrinos were known to pass through the earth, unlike other solar emissions.
- Less neutrinos are measured coming out of the earth than the amount entering, which means the neutrinos are involved in some transformative process.
- The earth’s inner core is heated by radioactive decay (much like fuel rods at a nuclear plant) and heat from the outer core. The inner is primarily iron, with up to 5% weight Nickel, and lighter alloying elements such as Sulfur, Oxygen, Silicon, Hydrogen, Carbon, Mg (Manganese) and K (Potassium). These lighter elements make up to 5-10% of the outer core, and 2-3% of the inner core. Iron has 24 radioactive isotopes, suggesting both the inner and outer core are subject to reduced rates of radioactive decay due to neutrino bombardment. One would expect that the iron in the cores -subject to extreme pressure and temperatures- would be converted to heavier isotopes subject to radioactive decay. Iron-55 or 55Fe is a radioactive isotope of iron with a nucleus containing 26 protons and 29 neutrons. It decays by electron capture to manganese-55 and this process has a half-life of 2.737 years. The core is thought to contain up to 5-10% atomic Mg. This suggests an ongoing cycle of radioactive decay of 55Fe
- An influx of solar neutrinos has been observed to reducing radioactive decay, so the assumption is that solar neutrinos reaching the earth’s core reduce radioactive decay and thus reduces the heat generated.
- Solar flares reduce atmospheric pressure which should contribute to a reduced pressure on the inner core, thus providing an environmental change of reduced pressure simultaneous with reduced heat
- Heating in the earth’s inner core is both a stable and a variable process, in that while there are pockets of heat transfer and heat generation, there are also pockets of cooling, and while these pockets are distributed throughout the inner core, one side of the core is thought to be cooling while the other side is considered to be heating, with both sides maintaining a state of equilibrium. Cooling contributes to a crystallization of elements, which in time, expands the diameter of the inner core in a lopsided manner. The side which is predominantly crystalized grows a few hundred meters, and the melting side expands a few kilometers.
- A lopsided change in the diameter of the inner core changes the location of the center of mass.
Six years after the initial observation and conclusions about solar flares reducing radioactive decay, no one has provided an explanation for how the rate of decay is reduced:
“But there’s one rather large question left unanswered. No one knows how neutrinos could interact with radioactive materials to change their rate of decay.
“It doesn’t make sense according to conventional ideas,” Fischbach said. Jenkins whimsically added, “What we’re suggesting is that something that doesn’t really interact with anything is changing something that can’t be changed.”
“It’s an effect that no one yet understands,” agreed Sturrock. “Theorists are starting to say, ‘What’s going on?’ But that’s what the evidence points to. It’s a challenge for the physicists and a challenge for the solar people too.”
If the mystery particle is not a neutrino, “It would have to be something we don’t know about, an unknown particle that is also emitted by the sun and has this effect, and that would be even more remarkable,” Sturrock said.”
This leaves the reader with the option of dismissing the theory as incomplete and invalid, or accepting the observable phenomena as the basis for an explanation. It may well be that the solar neutrino is not the cause, but the reduced radioactive decay is correlated to solar flare emissions across multiple isotopes, and known to pass through the earth’s core. There may be a different or new particle at the source of the phenomenon, or the neutrino may need to be redefined as being charged rather than neutral.
Given the few remaining writings of the Second Millennia BC describe symptoms of radioactive poisoning: such as the Papyrus of Ipuwer, the Curse of Akkad, and the Victory Stele of Nara-Sim, which describe extreme heat, death for those outdoors while those indoors lived, hair falling out, and widespread sterility of women. Most research today suggests that solar flares represent no such threat, because no such results were experienced with the Carrington Event. Generally omitted from those research results are the findings of Dr. Lawrence Townsend of the University of Tennessee, who studied ice cores for the region directly impacted by Carrington. According to Townsend, the 1859 Carrington Event left a record of 1,380 REM accumulated over 10 days on Greenland’s ice sheet. Current national safety standards limit accumulated exposure to 5 REM per year. Solar flares can produce harmful radiation on the earth’s surface, and the magnitude of the event required to flip the earth would need be far more severe than Carrington.
Where the understanding gets even more complicated is when dealing with a more complex model of gravity such as the gravitational forces affecting the Earth’s tidal bulge. Where the tire and tippe-top top are controlled by earth’s gravity, the earth is controlled by the multiple gravitational forces of the solar system (80+ variables which may account for less than 5% of the gravitational force). If there is an adjustment in the mass of the solar system (such as a large dust cloud passing through), the gravitational forces applied to earth are modified, which then affect the direction of the earth’s tidal bulge. In the polar flips of 10,700 BCE and 9,650 BCE, there was significant change in the gravitational forces of the solar system as well as adjustments to the earth’s geomagnetic field. Myth tells us the celestial serpent went under the earth, so there may be some reason to speculate the mass of the nebula Tiâmat was creating an additional pull on tidal forces helping shift center mass to the southern hemisphere. If the nebula was accompanied by a rogue planet, as suggested by Enûma Eliš, that too would be an added variable. The Talmud tells of the oceans boiling, and seven days of desolation before the Great Deluge -descriptions indicative of intense solar flaring.
In studying these flips and drifts, one conclusion becomes inescapable. Every time myth documents a standing still of the sun, or an extended period of darkness, or even a change in the direction of the sunset, and that myth can be correlated to a time in history, one will find a dramatic shift in the temperatures of the north pole and the south pole at that time. This correlates to the known history of polar drift. When the North Pole drifted to Hudson Bay, essentially Hudson Bay drifted north 30˚, and the glacial ice pack at the Hudson Bay became the thickest area of glacial ice. North America moved up in latitude which began what appeared to be the southern movement of the glaciers into Wisconsin. When the pole shifted back to its current location, North America returned closer to the equator and began the end of the ice age (Bolling Allerod). Studies have shown that the bulk of the 1A Meltwater came from North America, consistent with this explanation. In the 21st century, the problem is that there have been no major shifts in the polar temperatures for several thousand years, and there is very little recorded history with which to correlate shifts in temperature with global drift. A test was conducted to validate the theory. As a test of the theory, the hypothesis was that if a major shift in polar temperature occurred, there should be a cataclysmic event which preceded the change – an event which could have affected the center mass of the earth. In the event of the last major change, circa 1000 AD, there was indeed a major cataclysm of a comet striking the ocean, producing a tidal wave that affected northern Europe and America. In the next earlier temperature change in 800 AD, the Mayans and other cultures experienced catastrophic extermination due to series of massive volcanoes over 100 years. In both cases, not severe enough to flip the earth, put powerful enough to exacerbate the wobble.
When the ancients refer to the ‘the path of the stars’ changing, or ‘the path of the gods’ replacing the ‘path of the forefathers,’ it was a reflection of their changing view of the stars. Enoch was aware of this changing nature of the stars, as demonstrated when he writes “sun traveled the path shown to it” suggesting he knew other paths were possible. This reinforces the contention that Enoch’s time occurs after the polar flip of 10,700 BCE. The “path of the forefathers” thus references the change in the stars seen as the pole migrated along the path documented by Hapgood from 50,000 BCE to 10,000 BCE. The “path of the gods” would be represented by sky since the Great Deluge, with the exception of a short period in the second millennium BCE.
The dualism in the locations of the stars and planets was documented by the Egyptians in their pantheon, but it was also documented by the priests of Tihuanacu on their Sun-Gate, where four “constellations” are seen both to the left of the center of the universe as well as to the right, facing left and right in opposition to its twin (Figure 72: Four Dual Constellations of Tihuanacu.) In each scenario, the celestial winged serpent is positioned differently, either above the constellation, engulfing it, off to the side, or emerging as multi-headed. Additionally, as noted earlier:
- Arthur Posnansky was of the opinion “the pole of the earth’s axis was probably in a position opposite to that of today.”
- The KalasasayaTemple had a solar observatory wall “added” to the western side during “period 3”, which was not part of the original structure. Various graphical presentations of the temple may or may not include a small structure that at one time would have obstructed the line of sight between the center stone and the pillars on the western wall, suggesting the observatory on the western wall was neither original nor permanent.
- eastern side of the temple also had a full 180˚ solar observatory (albeit square and sunken), which is another indication the western observatory wall was an add-on.
- It needs be noted that a culture that could accomplish these extraordinary feats in building, stone cutting and measurement somehow managed to provide a different eastward orientation for all their temples in the same region, with east varying across a spread of 8.5 to 9 degrees. This suggests each was built at a different time under conditions of cataclysmic change:
- Puma Punku has an alignment 4-5° south of due East;
- Kalasasaya has an alignment .5° north of due East;
- The Subterranean Temple has an alignment 3.5° south of due East; and
- Acapana has an alignment 3.5° north of due east.
If Enoch was aware of the shifting nature of the stars, it was the priests of Tihuanacu that had the ability to explain it.
All rights reserved, © 2016 by E. Peter Matrejek. Fair Use encouraged, but please acknowledge the book as the refence rather than the web site.
 Diogenes Laertius, Empedocles and Anaxagoras (who argued heavens had tilted), and Leucippus and Democritus, (who argued earth itself had tilted) Dirk L. Couprie, The Riddle of the Celestial Axis, Heaven and Earth in Ancient Greek Cosmology, Volume 374 of the series Astrophysics and Space Science Library, January 2011, pages 69-78.
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page 119.
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Mankind in Amnesia, Paradigma Ltd, 1983, page 48.
 DeTraci Regula, The Mysteries of Isis: Her Worship and Magick, Llewellyn Worldwide, 1995, page 84. John Gwyn Griffiths, The Origins of Osiris and His Cult, BRILL, 1980, page 23. Joseph Eddy Fontenrose, Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins, University of California Press, 1959, page 188.
 Ignatius Donnelly, Ragnarök: The Age of Fire and Gravel, R. S. Peal and Company,1887, page 141
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page 122.
 Posnansky, Volume 1, pages 84 and 87. “West balcony was added in Period III.”
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page126.
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page 76, Story reconfirmed by Father Bernabe Cobo, Inca Religion and Customs (1653), University of Texas Press, Jun 28, 2010, page 16.
 Ibid.), page 62.
 Lumpkin, Joseph P., Banned from the Bible, Fifth Estate Publishers, 2008, Book of Jasher, Chapter 6, page 254.
 Sir Ernest Alfred Wallis Budge, The papyrus of Ani: a reproduction in facsimile, Volume 1, Medici Society; New York: G.P. Putnam, 1913, page 185.
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page 132.
 Ibid. page 120.
 Lumpkin, Joseph P., Banned from the Bible, Fifth Estate Publishers, 2008, page 9.
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page 55.
 Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page 115; “At the time of the miracle is said to have happened that the sun during a span of ten days did not set, the forests were ignited, and a multitude of abominable vermin was brought forth. ‘In the lifetime of Yao [Yahou] the sun did not set for full ten days and the entire land was flooded.’” One can suspect this was watched from Taosi, north China (35.875°N 111.508°E) which reportedly was the ancient capital and origin of Chinese astronomy.
 Cyril Aldred, The Egyptians, Praeger, London 1963, 1987.
 George F. Dodwell B.A., FRAS, The Obliquity of the Ecliptic: Ancient, mediaeval, and modern observations of the obliquity of the Ecliptic, measuring the inclination of the earth’s axis, in ancient times and up to the present,
http://www.setterfield.org/Dodwell_manuscript_1.html A gnomon was defined: “The most ancient instrument, and the one most frequently used for measuring the mid-day altitude of the sun at the summer and winter solstices, chiefly for the purpose of determining the date of the solstices, was the ordinary or plain gnomon, which was a vertical pillar, or column, fixed on a horizontal surface. The length of the shadow cast by the sun was measured, and from this the sun’s altitude was calculated.”
 Gerald Massey, The Natural Genesis: Or, Second Part of a Book of the Beginnings, Containing an Attempt to Recover and Reconstitute the Lost Origines of the Myths and Mysteries, Types and Symbols, Religion and Language, with Egypt for the Mouthpiece and Africa as the Birthplace, Volume 1, Williams and Norgate, 1883page 365.
 Timo Niroma, The Third Millennium BC (3100-2100 BC), http://personal.eunet.fi/pp/tilmari/tilmari2.htm
 Charles H. Hapgood, The Path of the Pole, Adventure Unlimited Press, Kempton, 1958, 1970, 1999, page 107.
 Charles H. Hapgood, The Path of the Pole, Adventure Unlimited Press, Kempton, 1958, 1970, 1999, page 106.
 Peter Warlow, Return to Tippe-Top, Chronology and Catastrophism Review, Vol IX, 1987, page 11.
 Mörner, Nils-Axel, The Gothenburg Magnetic Excursion, Quaternary Research, Vol. 7, 1977, page 418.
 See Immanuel Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos, pages 63-64, for French and German references for this series of events.
 Mörner, Nils-Axel, The Gothenburg Magnetic Excursion, Quaternary Research, Vol. 7, 1977, page 416.
 Jon Austin, “Sunrise in the West: Scientists warn North could be South as Earth’s magnetic poles Switch, Daily Express, Aug. 12, 2015.
 Gretchen Cook-Anderson, John Bluck, Jim Scott, NASA Study Suggests Giant Space Clouds Iced Earth, Release: 05-066, March 3, 2005. “Moderately dense space clouds are huge, and the solar system could take as long as 500,000 years to cross one of them. Once in such a cloud, the Earth would be expected to undergo at least one magnetic reversal.”
 Alexander A. Pavlov, Michael James Mills, Valery Mitrophanovich Ostryakov, G. I. Vasilyev, Owen B. Toon, Catastrophic ozone loss during passage of the Solar system through an interstellar cloud, Geophysical Research Letters (Impact Factor: 4.2). 01/2005; 320(1). DOI: 10.1029/2004GL021601.
 S.K. Runcorn, “The Earth’s Magnetism”, Scientific American, September 1955, pages 152-162. Cited in Cataclysm, by Allen and Delair, page 182.
 Mörner, Nils-Axel, The Gothenburg Magnetic Excursion, Quaternary Research, Vol. 7, 1977, pages 413-427.
 Brian Fagan, The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization, Basic Books, 2004, page 25.
 It is concluded Hudson Bay moved north because in Siberia, the geologic record shows tree line moved north because the Siberian landmass moved south.
 Esther Inglis-Arkell, Why the humble tippe top baffled physicists and statesmen, November 15, 2010, http://io9.com/5689842/why-the-humble-tippe-top-baffled-physicists-and-statesmen
 Haraldur Sigurdsson, Bruce Houghton, Steve McNutt, Hazel Rymer, John Stix, The Encyclopedia of Volcanoes, Elsevier, 2015, page 260.
 Kennett, J.P., and N.D. Watkins, “Geomagnetic Polarity Change, volcanic maxima and faunal extinction in the South Pacific”/ Nature, Volume 227, pages 930-934. Cited in Cataclysm, by Allen and Delair, page 183.
 Academic response to theories presented by researchers who are not vested in the specific discipline are not going to be welcomed, regardless of content. See Scientists Confront Velikovsky, edited by Donald Goldsmith, Cornell University Press, 1977. Nevertheless, there is a need to address this issue which no one in the ‘discipline’ has been willing to analyze, and to do so in language is generally understood.
 Adrian L. Melott and Brian C. Thomas, Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation and the Earth: A Brief Review and Census of Intermittent Intense Sources. This magnitude is consistent with La Violette’s observations as well.
 “An Isotope is any of two or more forms of a chemical element, having the same number of protons in the nucleus, or the same atomic number, but having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, or different atomic weights. There are 275 isotopes of the 81 stable elements, in addition to over 800 radioactive isotopes, and every known element has isotopic forms.” From Dictionary.com
 Dan Stober, The strange case of solar flares and radioactive elements, Stanford Report, August 23, 2010
 There is a study which contends that solar neutrinos have no effect on the rate of decay. It is important to note that the study conclusions are constrained by the assumption of the “order of magnitude postulated.” Old textbook knowledge reconfirmed: Decay rates of radioactive substances are constant. October 10, 2014,
 “The fact that these neutrinos pass straight through the Earth with ease fit well with the fact that the decay rates were changing even at night, when the entire planet was between the radioactive isotopes and the Sun.” from Alasdair Wilkins, The Sun is changing the rate of radioactive decay, and breaking the rules of chemistry, 8/23/2010, MAD Science
 Lidunka Vočadlo, October 2006, paper on internet. See also Dan Stober, The strange case of solar flares and radioactive elements, Stanford Report, August 23, 2010
 Krisztina Kádas, Levente Vitos, Börje Johansson, and Rajeev Ahujaa, Stability of body-centered cubic iron–magnesium alloys in the Earth’s inner core
 Excess heat is extracted from and returned to the inner core by the mantle. David Gubbins, Binod Sreenivasan, Jon Mound & Sebastian Rost, Melting of the Earth;s inner core, Nature, Vol.473, May 2011.
 Marc Monnereau, Marie Calvet, Ludovic Margerin,Annie Souriau, Lopsided growth of Earth’s Inner Core, Science, Vol. 328, May 2010.
 Dan Stober, The strange case of solar flares and radioactive elements, Stanford Report, August 23, 2010
 Dr. Sten Odenwald, Andrea Geyer, Mathematical problems featuring radiation effects applications, July 2011.
 See Figure 166: Arctic Tree Line Data through Figure 169: 800,000 Yrs. Greenland Ice Core Temperature. ‘Dramatic’ is a relative term, but the scale at which these charts are usually portrayed makes a 2° change seem dramatic.
 John P. Bluemle, Glacial Rebound, warped beaches and the thickness of the glaciers in North Dakota, North Dakota Geological Survey, September 30, 2005.
 Vivien Gornitz, Rising Seas: Past, Present, Future, Columbia University Press, Aug 13, 2013, eBook, no pagination.
 Richard Thornton, Catastrophic Natural Disasters Struck the Americas around 1000 Years Ago, Over a century of volcanic terror in Mesoamerica, August 31, 2012.
 Lumpkin, page 11, Chp83, v11.
All rights reserved, © 2016 by E. Peter Matrejek. Fair Use encouraged, but please acknowledge the book as the reference rather than the web site.