The Ceiling of Senmut’s Tomb

In the annals of Egyptian funerary artifacts, Senmut’s tomb has received inordinate attention, focused primarily on the direction and sequence of two figures (Sothis/Sirius and Orion.) These figures appear to have been presented on the ceiling so that “Orion appears west of Sirius instead of east. ‘The orientating of the southern panel is such that a person in the tomb looking at it has to lift his head and face north, not south.’ ‘With the reversed orientation of the south panel, Orion, the most conspicuous constellation of the southern sky, appeared to be moving eastward, i.e., in the wrong direction.”[1] A number of scholars have tried to dismiss the curiosity as being scribal error, but two observations make it clear that the orientation is not attributable to error. First, there are a number of obvious changes or adjustments to the ceiling art, indicating that the ceiling art had been corrected without addressing the reversed orientation issue, and second, there are numerous additional items on the ceiling that support the key message of a reversed orientation.   The astronomical chart on the ceiling of Senmut’s (Senemut) tomb is a critical component of the Egyptian record of changes to the location of the sunrise, be it in the east or west. The ceiling was created circa 1,473 BCE, some 1,200 years before Plato and Crantor reported the Egyptians recorded that the sun had risen in the west on two occasions. Senmut’s ceiling reinforces that ancient knowledge, as might be expected.

Senmut is on record as saying he had access to, and had studied all, the secrets of the ancient priests.

I had access to all the writings of the prophets; there was nothing which I did not know of that which happened since the beginning.[2]

Senmut was also instrumental to the famous Eighteenth Dynasty trip to Punt, home of the gods, and participated in the presentation to the pharaoh of the “the treasure of god’s land…never was seen the like since the beginning”.[3]  There are two references to “the beginning” on the Punt Reliefs, which combined with the extensive documentation of the trip – unlike no other trip to Punt – suggests that the exchange was more comprehensive than just trade, and may have included an exchange of ancient knowledge. The Reliefs indicate that scribes and artists were sent on the expedition to record as much as possible, and by reference to ‘the beginning’ suggests there was a dialogue during the expedition regarding Zep Tepi, the time of the primeval gods.[4] The writings and secrets of the prophets were much older than the Book of the Dead, which according to Budge was older than 5,000 BCE, and whose scribes understood little of what they recorded. Those secrets would have included the changing of the location of the sunrise, which is integral to resurrection mythology and portrayed on Senmut’s tomb’s ceiling. The belief in the resurrection of the dead was based on the resurrection of the gods, which had been demonstrated in primeval history. Included in those primeval resurrection myths are:  1) the death and dismemberment of Apep; 2) the first death of Ra, which ends the First Age of Man; 3) the second death of Ra which ends the Second Age of Man; 4) the death of Osiris; 5) the dismemberment of Osiris; and 5) the blinding of Horus, ending the Third Age of Man (See Exhibit IV or Table 1 Primeval Geologic Events. Footnotes and documentation found in Exhibit IV).  Egyptian history begins circa 10,700 BCE with the arrival of its ancestors in Egypt, and marks beginning of the Third Age of Man, the ending of which should be marked by the Great Deluge (circa 9,650 BCE). These myths of resurrection overlap in themes to such a degree that it is nearly impossible to distinguish the events which the original myths were intended to describe. Elements of some have been fused into others, and it seems impossible to sort out the events of the original version of the theme.[5] If, however, the meaning of the themes is correctly understood in their original context, a dating of the events at the foundation of the resurrection myths is yet possible. Senmut’s tomb focuses on those myths which occurred during the Second and Third Ages. which tell the tale of the blinding of Horus the Elder, the murder and dismemberment of Osiris by Set, and the revenge of Horus the Younger, who defeats and    dismembers Seth.[6]

 

Celestial Events behind the Myths

All of the aforementioned myths have their origins in celestial activity, thus representing a perfect motif for the ceiling art of any tomb. To understand the myths, one must be acquainted with several types of celestial activity generally not associated with these myths:

  1. Dark cloud nebula, and in particular the interstellar dust clouds that encompassed earth as a result of the supernova of Sagittarius A (Sgr*A). There were two major waves, and several minor incursions of interstellar dust interspersed with several periods of intense solar flaring, also attributable to the dust clouds. These activities are recorded in the ice cores of both the North and South poles, and occurred between 13,850 BCE and 9,650 BCE.[7] These waves represent the source of virtually all demonic legend, with the first wave of dust being recorded as Apophis/Apep and the second as Seth. As dust clouds, their legacy was that of a shapeshifter, a bringer of death, darkness, acidic rain and a harbinger of solar flares and plasma discharges. As a shapeshifter, the cloud took on many forms, and spawned many smaller clouds giving rise to myths of an army of demons. Such was the suffering generated by these clouds, that these two entities were represented by the ‘hidden, magic name of power’ of Seth, as related in the Turin Papyrus, as “Evil Day.”[8] The impermanence of this nebula is the hallmark of its mystery.  While the stars, planets and their satellites could be observed and celebrated as gods over thousands of years, the nebula was an observable but transitional force that challenged the permanence of the gods. Its passing through the sky gave rise to many allusions to the demon “eating, swallowing[9], hiding” the gods, and making them disappear for extended periods of time. This not to say that every disappearance in the sky was due to this dust cloud, but in the case of the death and weakness of Ra and the death of Osiris- this becomes the primary candidate.

Nebula phenomenon are not easily witnessed from the northern hemisphere, and are more commonly known in the southern hemisphere. This aspect of the nebula gods is consistent with a theory that suggests the cultural origin of the primeval ancestors of Egypt is from the southern hemisphere. It also provides understanding as to why the ‘dark’ gods are more commonly associated with the ‘Underworld.’ In Greek myth, Tartarus (Galactic Core) was the home of the old gods, the birthplace of Typhon, and the prison for the cyclops and the Hekatonkheires. These were the old gods of the ancestors, born of the celestial cataclysms around Sgr A* and easily observed from Tihuanacu, but not easily viewed from Egypt.[10] After the floods (in the Titicaca Basin) and migrations to the northern hemisphere (Red Sea and the Caucasus) the nature of the gods fundamentally shifted from nebula to planets and stars, and the dark regions of the sky easily observed from the south became great mysteries in the north.  When the migrations occurred from Tihuanacu to the Red Sea occurred, (circa 10,700 BCE) the sunrise on the vernal equinox shifted from Scorpius to Orion. The immigrants gave their gods a ‘new’ home called the Belly of Nut, home of Osiris.[11] seen in Figure 27, and on the wall of Senmut’s Tomb next to Orion. (Figure 174)

  1. High proper motion of stars is the barely perceptible movement of the stars relative to the other stars. It needs be distinguished from the perceived motion due to the earth’s spin, it’s rotation around the sun, and the wobble of precession. This motion is known as ‘proper motion.’ The perceived proper motion of a star is a function of the distance between the earth and that star, such that the proper motion of some stars is faster relative to other stars. Those with perceived faster motion are categorized as having “high-proper-motion.”  The perceived movement of these stars is best understood with an example, such that during the course of 175 years, Barnard’s star has been recorded as moving the equivalent distance to the perceived diameter of the moon in the night sky.  Over the course of lifetime, the motion is nearly imperceptible, but for a priesthood of ‘watchers’ who maintain records over thousands of years, the motion becomes clear.  This motion becomes the foundation for several myths in regions of the sky characterized by ‘high proper motion,’ in particular the region currently viewed as the North Pole, and the region near Orion, Pleiades, and Hyades. ‘High proper motion’ becomes the primary explanation for dismemberment myths in Egyptian and Hindu mythology.
  2. Polar Flip is one of the most widely ignored and disputed phenomena of celestial motion. Described in the myths of nearly every culture, its description is most commonly that of ‘the sky falling,’ ‘the stars rushing,’ or ‘the sun falling to earth,’ but the motion in the sky is really perception caused by the earth rolling over. Gravity remains in play, but the motion and momentum results in horrific winds, earthquakes and tidal waves. Seasons were reversed because that which was in the northern hemisphere was relocated to the southern hemisphere. Polar flip is best described as the earth seen as a ‘tippe top’ – a special type of toy top, spinning, flipping upside down while continuing to spin, and then up righting itself while continuing to spin.  The Lost Book of Enoch describes three such events. While there is no accepted theory explaining these events, a theory is presented in Chapter IX. This phenomenon best explains myths of the death and rebirth of sun gods.  It also explains those myths relating to the drunken frenzy of the gods (Dionysus, Bacchus, Isis, Centzon Totochtin). The appearance of minor sun gods throughout history, properly placed between Ra, Osiris and Horus – in other cultures as well as Egypt – suggests the eastern rising sun was the primary god, and the western rising sun was a minor sun god.  These minor gods are acknowledged in the ancient texts with very little elaboration, as their presence in the record denies the ‘all powerful’ ethos of the primary sun gods. The gods of the western sun-rise never lasted more than fifty years, and being short lived, never attained the stature of the gods of the eastern sun-rise.  These transitional gods are discussed in depth in Chapter XV.
  3. Supernova have rarely been associated with mythology, with the exception of work of Dr. Paul A. LaViolette. With the ‘stinger’ of the Scorpius Constellation and the pointed arrow of Sagittarius now known to be marking the origins of the Sgr A* supernova because of its devastating impact on humanity, it behooves humankind to revisit mythology for other such markings. Egyptian resurrection mythology provides that additional insight. The Egyptians marked the location of the death of Horus with seven scorpions[12]:

senmut170

Figure 170: Seven Scorpions of Canis Major (Bow of Ishtar,used by Ninurta to kill Anzu/Typho/Seth)

It is worth noting that the ‘sting’ of Tefen was seven-fold of the others, suggesting a major super nova remnant in the region.  They were arranged around Sirius as follows: “Behind me were Tefen and Befen; on either side were Mestet and Mestetef; in front were Petet, Thetet, and Matet.”[13]  These seven scorpions  are found in the region of the sky now referred to as Canis Major, which at an earlier time was known as the Bow of Ishtar or Bow of Indra, used to fight the celestial demons in the Battles of the Gods.[14]  Allan and Delair note that there were at least five supernova  between 13,000 and 9,500 BCE.[15] This region of the sky is home to the Vela Supernova, estimated by most in the range of 9,000 9500 BCE. The five supernova recorded on the ruins at Punt (Tihuanacu) would seem to be represented by Sgr A*, Sgr A* East, CTB 109, MSH 15-56, and G5.4-1.2, and represent the ‘old’ gods around the Galactic Core such as the three Hekatonkheires and the Cyclopes. Supernovae in the region of Orion such as Vela, would represent the new gods. The Vela Supernova was seen in this period, although there is a great deal of variability in the time at which it was thought to be seen. The Galactic Core represented the birthplace of the old gods, and the region around Orion and Sirius represented the birthplace of the new gods. The Egyptians marked the transition from the old gods to the new gods with the myth of death of Ra, killed by Isis because he was old and weakened by his long lasting battles with Seth, and could not defeat Apophis/Seth. The new god Horus the Younger was bitten by one of these scorpions in his youth, which suggests the ‘Watchers’ witnessed a supernova in the region of Orion, which was similar to the older Sgr A*, but of lesser magnitude.

Enoch and the Watchers maintains that the origin of the ‘scorpion’ symbol for supernova is first recorded at Tihuanacu, Bolivia on ruins built between 13,000 and 10,000 BCE. One of the oldest statues from that location wears a belt of symbols resembling a supernova – a symbol that later became stylized and integrated into ancient Tihuanacu carvings. (See Figures 123 and 124) As supernova were seen to be repeated, the Watchers of Tihuanacu recorded them with a symbol of a circumscribed sphere (Figure 116 B).[16] Humankind’s ability to observe and document supernova was recently demonstrated by Sir Rosse in 1844, who produced a drawing of a supernova that could easily resemble the scorpion or be construed as a mythical Hekatonkheire (Figure 125)- one of the ‘old gods’ of Greek mythology.[17]

These are the extraordinary primary celestial forces being documented in Egyptian resurrection mythology

 

The Geological Record behind the Myths

The events described in the previous section have left their imprint on the Earth’s geological layers, sediment cores and ice cores. A compilation of these events is seen in Table 1 Primeval Geologic Events. (Footnotes and documentation found in Exhibit IV).  The underlying assumptions of the chart begins with the Great Deluge occurring circa 9650 BCE.[18] Just as Horus the Younger ends the reign of Seth, his Sumerian counterpart – Marduk – defeats Tiamat (Typhon). Sumerian myth (Enûma Eliš) tells humankind the Great Deluge came with the end of Tiamat/Seth/Typhon.  Using this date as one of two critical milestones, the early portions of the Turin Papyrus provide a chronology of the historical reign of the gods, which maps with great precision to the geological ages defined by contemporary science.[19] The second critical milestone becomes the arrival of interstellar dust from Sgr A*, circa 13,850 BCE. The reigns of the primeval gods listed in the Turin Papyrus fits precisely between these two milestones, and the events described in primeval myth correspond to geological record of the same period.  Egyptian mythology can then be mapped to the geological events which are aligned with the reign of the gods.   The objective of the mapping exercise required to understand Senmut’s Tomb is to find a set of geological events that correspond to the following mythical criteria:

  • Events occurring prior to the dismemberment of Set (The bull not shown as a quarter or hind leg. This eliminates the Fourth Age of Man);
  • involving demons (multiple crocodiles and Taweret);
  • involving Serqet (who protects the young Horus and stands next to the bull being slain);
  • involving Taweret, a complex entity acknowledged to protect Horus when stung by a scorpion, yet known to be a consort of Seth, whose character seems more demonic than a force for good;
  • during the age of man (This may seem an unnecessary observation, but two of the myths occur during the First Age of Man, which was an age of the descendants of god and the giants, before god created man. (Osiris, in his earthly manifestation, was often referred to as a giant.) Humankind – in any mythology – does not enter center stage until the Second Age of Man, and even then, shares earth with the giants. On the ceiling one sees a ‘giant’ – a little shorter than the gods, and then a man, much shorter than the giant or the gods, possibly a Watcher pointing to the stars.)
  • involves a 180° polar flip (reversed procession of the gods).

The reviewer is left with two polar flips to choose from: that which ended the Second or Third Age of Man.

 

Blinding of Horus

Horus, in a myth with multiple versions, battles with Seth during which Horus is blinded in one eye, but is still able to castrate Seth in retaliation. The Blinding of Horus is an amazingly confusing myth, because the various versions using this story-line describe three separate and distinct figures with the name Horus:

  • Horus the Elder (Haroëris), Brother of Osiris and Seth, and early consort with Isis;[20]
  • Horus the Younger, Son of Osiris and Isis- Pyramid Texts, Utterance 357-359;[21]
    • Line 586a. O Osiris N., betake thyself to Horus,
    • Line 589a. Horus comes; he recognizes his father in thee.
  • Horus of Edfu (Behdet, Heru-Behutet), defender of Osiris; Horus of Edfu, is consistently the consort of Hathor, one of the eight original children of Ptah, but Horus Behdet is usually associated with the dynastic era more than the primeval era;
  • Distinguishing between the three versions of Horus is not made easier by text that suggests Horus the Elder is the same as Osiris[22]

Many scholars have concluded they should be interpreted as the same entity, explaining away differences by the location of their cult origins. Other scholars have disagreed. Multiple scholars take the view that the Egyptian theology is monotheistic, and that Horus, Osiris and Ra are all to be considered one, much like the Christian concept of Holy Trinity.[23] Herein, the position is taken that by placing the stories in their historical context, the can be defined to represent separate times and events.  These myths developed over thousands of years, regularly shortened and condensed over generations that found the detail less than meaningful.  One key element lost was the timing of these events, with very little indication of the lapses of time in-between events. Myth tells the scholar the judgement of the gods as to whether Horus or Seth should rule lasted eighty years-roughly comparable to the period identified by Hapgood as the period for a geo-polar flip!

There are three distinct solar events in primeval history that resemble this story-line: 12,100 BCE, 10700 BCE, 9650 BCE. There is a fourth solar event circa 2300 BCE which probably served as the inspirational event for Senmut’s ceiling, but by that time, the myths had already taken hold. These events can be assigned to myth as per the sequence of events in Table 2: Chronology of Osiris and Horus.

To a large degree the dates represent geological milestones for dust and geomagnetic incursions, with the likelihood that extreme solar flaring preceded the polar flips of circa 12,100 BCE, 10,700 BCE, 9,650 BCE. These are the three events identified by the ancient sage known as Enoch.[24]

The myth of Horus being blinded is replete with versions of the eye being eaten, swallowed, or covered with mud, so the presumption is that the blinding is caused by a dust incursion. Following the blinding, Seth loses his testicles in the battle, which is the imagery of two globes being detached from the dust cloud. This myth is repeated by many cultures and is found in the sequence of a fiery meteor strike on Earth. That strike occurs circa 10,900. The Greeks refer to the testicles of Ouranus falling into the sea when Kronos overthrows him. In the myth of the Contending between Horus the Younger and Seth, Seth removes both of Horus’ eyes as punishment for Horus either beheading Isis or removing her crown.[25] During the battle, the Eye of Horus flees to the opposite side of the Milky Way, representing a polar flip, geologically recorded circa 10700. Later, Horus returns to the Underworld, taking his eye to Osiris to heal him. (Figure 139). With Osiris healed, Horus and Seth are healed, and continue to battle.

The Death of Osiris

The death of Osiris is presented through several metaphors, but according to the most studied scholar of this myth “the death of Osiris is rarely described in definite terms.”[26] His death is considered to be due to  drowning by the trickery of Seth.  The Pyramid Texts refers three times to Osiris’ death by drowning[27]

 

Table 13 Primeval Geologic Events. (Footnotes and documentation found in Exhibit IV)

Date Myth Celestial Event
12,200 BCE Battles between Ra and Apophis Dust from SgrA* superwave arrives[28]
12,100 BCE Death of Ra 180° Polar Excursion
12,000 BCE Rise of Seth Interstellar Dust Incursion peak
11,400 BCE Horus the Elder Blinded, Interstellar Dust Incursion peak
10,900 BCE Seth’s/Ouranos’ testicles fall into the sea 100-fold spike platinum in ice Core
10,700 BCE Horus The Elder’s Eye Flees to the East Polar Excursion
10,400 BCE Death of Osiris/Birth of Horus the Younger Major Gothenburg Geomagnetic Flip, Extreme Solar Flares
10,400 BCE Dismemberment of Osiris by Seth and the resurrection of Osiris High proper motion in region of Constellation Canis Major
10,300-10,200 BCE Rise of Seth Interstellar Dust Incursion peak
10,100-9650 BCE ‘Contending’ of Seth and Horus Three massive Sulphur dioxide peaks, Cosmic ray peak
9,650 BCE Both eyes removed from Horus by Seth, Horus the Younger Defeats Seth Solar flaring prior to Deluge, Great Deluge, 200° Polar Excursion
Post 9650 BCE Dismemberment of Seth High proper motion in region of Ursa Major
2,300 BCE Horus of Edfu (Behdet) defends Ra (Atreus and the reversal of the sun) Solar flares, polar excursion

Table 14: Chronology of Osiris and Horus

The Dismemberments of Osiris and Seth

Osiris is reported in various myths to have died twice: once, as an infant when he is bitten by a scorpion, and then again as an adult, when he is dismembered by Seth after being locked in a casket and thrown into the celestial river.  The latter event is intriguing because it does not follow the more common description of a primeval god being removed from earthly view. Moreover, it has never been presented pictorially in any known tomb or temple.[29] In trying to understand this phenomena of dismemberment, the key is associating Osiris with the “Belly of Nut”, originally recognized by the Egyptians as the home of Osiris.[30] The Belly of Nut is represented on the ceiling of Senmut and Seti’s tombs by icons not well understood.[31](See Figure 27) The death and dismemberment of Osiris is a central theme of the funeral rituals, in that the organs of the dead or preserved as were the dismembered parts of Osiris, and the ‘opening of the mouth’ ritual is practiced as it was first practiced to resurrect Osiris.

The ‘opening of the mouth’ ritual leads to the dismemberment of Seth. The dismemberment of Seth is equally enigmatic in that it is rarely discussed as myth (other than at the Temple of Edfu or the Ramesseum Dramatic Papyrus[32]) but a key element in the funerary rituals. Its connection to the funeral rites is that Seth is intrinsically connected to the ‘opening of the mouth’ rite in which the mouth of the dead is opened to restore life and the dead can eat and drink again. The tool used to open the mouth is the meshka, made with the ‘metal of Seth’ (meteoric iron).[33] Murals of this rite often portrayed the meshka (msḫtyw) as a bull’s leg, with the bull’s leg put to the mouth of the deceased as to offer food to the dead. The bull’s leg, in turn, is representative of the constellation Ursa Major (the Big Dipper), which was considered by the Egyptians to be the source of meteoric iron – the metal of Seth. The collection of this foreleg was portrayed as a product of the dismemberment of Seth under the name of the Sma-ur Bull (Sam-ur Bull, Smam, Smamu[34]), meaning “Great, Wild Bull”[35]. The Sma-ur Bull was the official sacrificial bull for bringing the dead to life, and mentioned in the Book of the Dead.  His name was synonymous with crushing the land, fire and darkness.[36] For some, his name was synonymous with Seth.[37]

Smite, Father, the Bull Sma-ur. Thou smites, Father, thou slayest the Great Bull…. Thou openest the Bull with thy weapon. Thou drivest thy lance into the Bull. Thou takest him by the ear. His head is cut off. His tail is cut off. His forelegs are cut off. His haunches are cut off… His two jaw bones are for Keb and Nut.[38]

His jaw bones become the two ‘Jaw” constellations of the Northern Hemisphere, represented on Senmut’s ceiling as crocodiles, but hieroglyphically, are just ‘jaws.’ The foreleg becomes the Egyptian “plough” constellation on the Northern ceiling panel. The role of the ‘Hippopotamus” goddess on the northern panel is described accordingly:

“And after he had cut out the fore-leg (ḫš he threw it into the sky. Spirits guard it there: The Great Bear (mśḫtyὠ) of the northern sky. The great Hippopotamus goddess keeps hold of it, so that it can no longer sail in the midst of the gods.”[39]

The Hippopotamus goddess has a greater role in this story line than merely being an anchor to Ursa Major. The name by which she is more widely known is Taweret. In the Senmut (and Seti) tomb, she faces left. In other pictorials, such as Denderah, she faces right, which is considered the technically correct direction.[40] Once again then, in Senmut’s tomb, one learns of another reversal at the center of the imagery. Taweret, however, represents more than a point in time or space. Taweret is a name given to a demon who is known in Egyptian myth by many names spanning several thousand years. (Thoueris, Draco, Reret, Neith, Tekhi, Ipy and Hathor.) With these characterizations, Taweret encompasses the dark, chaotic forces from the sky that destroy the world and human-kind, and set the stage for creation and fertility. Thus, she takes on the description of the great shape shifting nebula which all evidence suggests originated in SgrA*, near the Galactic Core, circa 13,850 BCE. The Egyptians placed her in the region of the constellation Draco – the Dragon.  In another part of Egypt, at an earlier time- known as Neith, she was consort of the Crocodile god Sobek, and mother of Ra!  These titles, these relationships are only understood when the demon goddess is defined as the shape-shifting interstellar nebula that endured over earth for more than three thousand years. This interstellar dust cloud caused the earth to roll over on two occasions (as noted by Egyptian historians), causing the sun to rise in the west. The sun rising from the west was named as a new god, with Sobek(Sebek/Seb) and Seker(Sokar) being the Egyptian gods of the western sunrise. Taweret, then known as Neith, was seen as the consort of the new sun named Sobek (Sebek, Seb), and the mother of the sun god (Ra) that followed Sobek, with Ra rising again from the east.  In most accounts, Ra’s position in the pantheon follows the god named Ptah, Ammon (Amun), or Atum (and takes the name Atum-Re or Amun-Re), but a careful search of the literature places Sobek as interim god for a short period – less than fifty years. In this respect, the placement of Taweret at the center of the mural as its largest character, suggests a strong correlation of the Horus in the mural being identified with Horus the Elder (Haroëris). The first wave of this nebula, dust of which is recorded in the ice cores of both poles, provides the foundation for the myth of Haroëris versus Seth.  1,350 years later the process repeated itself, and a new generation of priests named a new Horus to defeat Seth, who has now come to represent the master of these dark forces. The return of the eastern sunrise became the foundation of resurrection mythology in the myth of Osiris.

The resurrection myth is based on a series of events first of which is the shutting way of Osiris in a casket or box, and abandoning, and throwing the container into the Nile.

 O Osiris Pepi, The Sma Bull is brought to the cut in pieces; he maketh his march. O son of Horus, Hep, Tuamutef, Amset, bear ye up your father Osiris, guide ye him along. O Osiris Pepi, he giveth thee sustenance, he openeth thy mouth, stand thou up.[41]

In this rite, the pharaoh Pepi, upon being resurrected, takes on the power of Seth and is welcomed into the heavens:

Pepi is a Great One, the Son of a Great One, and is born of Nut. The might of Pepi is the might of Set (Seth) of Nubt. Pepi is the Bull-god Sma-ur…Heaven saluteth him joyfully, the earth trembleth before him, for he hath broken the power of the raging rainstorm, and he hath roared like Set. (Seth)[42]

senmut171

Figure 171: Scenes from Ritual of Opening of the Mouth (read right to left)[43]

What needs to be understood about star constellations is that the stars move over time in a manner not related to the rotations and wobble of the earth, but as independent bodies with their own gravitational forces.  With the understanding of proper motion of the stars, the next component is an understanding of this movement is that high-proper-motion can be recognized in groups of stars, aptly entitled “moving groups.” These groups have common velocities, attributed to a common origin in space and time, but not necessarily the same vector.  Not many of these groups have been identified, but two of them of interest here are Hyades, and Ursa Major.

  • Hyades are the sisters that were the nursemaids of the interim god Dionysius who ruled for a short period during the Third Age of Man, when Osiris was replaced as the primary solar entity by Horus the Younger. The proper motion of the Hyades is recorded in myth has having left their sister Ambrosia behind, meaning Ambrosia was not a part of the original formation of that cluster. According to the same myth, their flight was a result of departure of Dionysius who was removed from power at the end of the Third Age of Man when the Titans were returned to prison (Tartarus- the Galactic Core) by Zeus.
  • Ursa Major – the northern constellation including the Big Dipper – was acknowledged at the same time as having high-proper-motion that warranted a description of ‘dismemberment.’ This should be interpreted as the high-proper-motion of the Ursa Major Moving Group rendered the former imagery of the bull as inappropriate, dismembering the Sma-ur bull. The imagery of the stars of Ursa Major was recast as the ‘foreleg’ of the bull.

In the resurrection mythology, the Egyptian god Thoth is responsible for returning the Eye of Horus to Osiris. In the process, Thoth battles Seth and loses his hand, which is later restored.[44] This seems difficult to cipher until one understands that Canis Major is the known as the constellation of Thoth, and that Sirius is the main object in that constellation. Originally, the Egyptians placed seven stars in that constellation[45] in addition to Sothis (Sirius), and each of them was referred to as a scorpion. One of those seven stars was the scorpion that supposedly bit Horus the Younger as a child, nearly killing him. This occurred after the death of Osiris, when Isis and the young Horus were in hiding from Seth. Currently there are only six stars in addition to Sirius in Canis Major, suggesting one of the seven wandered off, as notated by the lost hand of Seth. It is not coincidence that the Sirius and the remaining six stars of Canis Major originally represented the ‘Bow of Ishtar (Ištar, Anunît)” used by Ninurta to kill the Anzu. Sirius was known as the “Bow Star” to the Sumerians.[46] That myth is the original myth underlying the myth of Marduk killing Tiamat with the Bow Star[47], which is the Sumerian version of Horus killing Typhon (aka Seth). Hence the world comes to understand this was the region of the night sky where the last great battle of the Gods took place – on the other side of the Milky Way from whence Apophis originated with Sgr A*. It is also not coincidental that it is here that the great celestial conflict ends for all primeval mythology – because this location is at the outer edge of Milky Way Galaxy, after which there are no stars to lighten the sky, no interstellar dust to be swept up in the stellar winds.

The Bow of Ishtar takes on additional significance in that according to Acadian myth, the ‘Bow of Ishtar’ is that which is seen in the sky after the Great Deluge. It is same as the war bow of Indra that he hangs in the heavens after vanquishing the storm demons.[48] This marks the region of the sky where the gods fought just prior to the Great Deluge.

The timing of these two myths which describe the high-proper-motion of Moving Groups of stars appear to be the common observations of a single group of ‘watchers’ and ancient astronomers prior to the end of the Third Age of Man.  What is known is that the lines-of-sight built into the Great Pyramid – one towards Sirius and the region of the Hyades, and another towards Ursa Major and the four sons of Horus – seem to affirm that these regions of the sky were important to the ancient astronomers of Egypt. The primary difficulty with this acknowledgement is that the events that defined these two regions as sacred happened seven to eight thousand years before Senmut built his tomb and had that story painted on his ceiling.

 

Events as portrayed on Senmut’s Tomb

The ceiling of Senmut’s tomb has been the subject of a number of in-depth studies, none of which have ever focused on the myth or story that is the centerpiece of the northern ceiling panel.  Much comment has been made about the irregular, reversed position of Sothis (Sirius) and Orion, and about the ‘corrections’ made to the ceiling – suggesting that enough meticulous attention was given to the work that it was corrected in at least three or four places before being sealed for centuries. That level of attention should suggest ruling out copy error or ignorance as a source of the inexplicable, but analysts still default to those explanations first provided by Neugebauer and Parker, rather than try to deal with the frightening truth that the ceiling documents the sun rising in the west. The ceiling addresses that subject in multiple ways:

  1. The confusion in the direction of Sothis and Orion;
  2. The absence of Orion from the hieroglyphic list of decans along the top;[49]
  3. The contradictory direction of the marching gods with the march beginning in the west;
  4. The point of reversal of the march of the gods when the location of Orion is reached, which is consistent with the classic myth of the Eye of Horus leaping across the Milky Way;
  5. The reverse presentation of the Hippopotamus goddess (Taweret);
  6. The northern hemisphere is painted on southern ceiling panel, and the southern hemisphere on the northern panel.
  7. The absence of Mars from the parade of gods, which indicates Mars was not an acknowledged god until after the reign of Horus the Younger;
  8. The hieroglyphic story line about the death of Horus (Haroëris) and Osiris; and
  9. The imagery of Horus Behdet myth.

Each point requires its own clarification, as none of this is obvious in a 3500-year-old presentation on the ceiling of Senmut’s tomb.

 

The confusion in the direction of Sothis and Orion;

The conflicting orientation of Sothis and Orion on the northern panel was first widely publicized by Immanuel Velikovsky.

In the tomb of Senmut, the architect of Queen Hatshepsut, a panel on the ceiling shows the celestial sphere with ‘a reversed orientation’ or the southern sky. The end of the Middle Kingdom antedated the time of Queen Hatshepsut by several centuries. The astronomical ceiling presenting a reversed orientation must have been a venerated chart, made obsolete a number of centuries earlier. ‘A characteristic feature of the Senmut ceiling is the astronomically objectionable orientation of the southern panel,’ The center of this panel is occupied by the Orion-Sirius group, in which Orion appears west of Sirius instead of east. ‘The orientating of the southern panel is such that a person in the tomb looking at it has to lift his head and face north, not south.’ ‘With the reversed orientation of the south panel, Orion, the most conspicuous constellation of the southern sky, appeared to be moving eastward, i.e., in the wrong direction.’  [50]

This puzzling orientation was confirmed by Neugebauer and Parker:

Orion was described as a god whose body faces Sothis but whose head is turned away, with a   ω϶s scepter in the hand near to Sothis while the opposing hand holds an ‘nḫ -sign. This is true whether Sothis is to his left or right. On coffin 6, for example, Sothis is to Orion’s left, in the normal decanal order (Fig. 26a).  …The same order is clear also in the depiction of Orion in Seti I A and Seti I C families (Fig. 26b) even though here his body is turned away from Sothis while his head is turned toward her…Senmut (Fig. 26 C) however, and the family reverse the positions of the ω϶s -scepter and the ‘nḫ, placing the former away from Sothis and the latter near her, though the head and the body retain the earlier positions, with little variation.

To this interchange of scepter and ‘nḫ, the scribe, we suggest has attempted to adjust the order of the decans, placing rmn hry first and ‘rt together with rmn ḥry in last place, and it is very likely this attempt which led him as well to a change from writing the decans as rmn hry and rmn hry to ḥry rmn s϶ḥ “the (star) over the arm of Orion” and ḥry rmn sȝḥ “The star under the arm of Orion”, writing found only in the Senmut family (emphasis is Parker and Neugebauer)[51]

senmut172

Figure 172: Various Presentations of Orientation of Orion

The conclusion is that even after multiple corrections to the ceiling, Senmut left this unique reverse portrayal remain.

 

The absence of Orion from the hieroglyphic list of decans along the top;

In addition to the reverse posture of Orion presented in the main mural, his name was removed from the hieroglyphic presentation of the decans which represent the 360° of the astronomical clock. The removal suggests that the polar flip represents the notion that there was not enough time in the day for Orion to take its place on the horizon. In the Egyptian view, the Orion Constellation spans 40° as marked by the four stars under Orion’s barque. By dropping Orion, Senmut may be trying to tell the viewer that the rollover of the earth took approximately 160 minutes.

 

The contradictory direction of the marching gods with the march beginning in the west;

On the Southern panel, one sees a line of gods following the ‘path of the gods,’ facing east.  On the eastern side of the panel, one finds a line of gods facing west. They meet in the middle of the ceiling where the Great Contending between Horus and Seth takes place. Hieroglyphs and Egyptian writing is read in the direction the symbols face. A major message of the northern panel is that the gods changed direction at that point in time of the Great Contending. By comparison, when one looks at the procession of gods in the Seti tombs, the procession is unidirectional. (Figure 6) Equally important to this line is a heron with a star over its head at the beginning of the line, in the West. One can be certain it is the beginning because that is the primary meaning of the heron: it is a hieroglyph for the Bennu, the Sacred bird of Heliopolis. It is thought to be derived from the word weben, meaning “rise” or “shine. It was also associated with the inundation of the Nile, with Creation and first life. It represents the ‘beginning, and occupies ‘nearly’ two decans of distance.’ The next symbol -marked in the upper column -stands for Seth.[52] The next god listed in the upper hieroglyphs is Duamutef, one of the Four Sons of Horus and protector of gods travel though the eastern sky.

senmut173

Figure 173: Ceiling of Senmut with gods in contradictory position

senmut174

Figure 174: Ceiling of Senmut’s Tomb[53]

senmut175

Figure 175: Sepulchral Hall of Seti I with gods marching in single direction

Reversal of the ‘march of the gods’ when the location of Orion is reached – consistent with the myth of the Eye of Horus leaping across the Milky Way;

The central feature of the two panels is a spiked line from the outer edge of the southern panel to the center of the ceiling. This line is meant to represent the path of the sun. (See Figure 6) The spike is literally in the center of the scene, positioned over the eighteenth of thirty-six stars that border the bottom of the image.  On one side of the spike is found the demon Taweret (a hippopotamus with lion’s head, drooping breast, with a crocodile mounted on her back). Taweret is drawn to be larger than the rest of the gods on the ceiling, which is appropriate for the magnitude of the Sgr*A cloud. The demon cloud Taweret is noted as the point where the sun departs from its path because the cloud is responsible for the blinding of Horus the Elder.  Following the spike upward, one finds the image of Horus spearing the Sma-ur Bull, the sacrificial bull required to produce the life-giving foreleg. Above of the killing of the bull – but offset to the east – is found Serquet (Sek), known for the Scorpion above her head.[54] There is nothing overly symbolic in this presentation, and is meant to be a factual representation of the Egyptian Constellations: Sek, Horus, Bull’s Foreleg, Taweret, Lion and others in the general order which they are perceived in the northern sky. The spike, however represents the path of the sun as it jumps from the east to west and then back. This is the path described in the Pyramid Texts §§ 594 – 596. When the sun appears to make that jump due to the earth’s rollover, the sun ends the journey in the region of Orion and Sothis, precisely as indicated by a continuation of the spike into the opposite panel of Senmut’s tomb.  The appearance of the gods to reverse their procession on the upper panel is consistent with the path of the sun on the lower panel. When the rollover of the earth stopped, the sun appeared to have “jumped” to the region Sothis and Orion, but because 180° flip, the earth’s continual rotation appeared reversed. (See Figure 71)

The “beginning” of the procession of the gods through the heavens is marked by the heron, (the symbol of the ‘Bennu,’) seen on the west side of northern panel.  The heron – the Bennu – is a symbol of the new beginning, much like the Phoenix arising from the ashes. The “beginning” is 180 degrees from where the sun jumps from one side of the Milky Way to the opposite side, and 160 degrees behind Sothis (Sirius). This is indicated by Sothis being positioned above the sixteenth star from the left, of thirty-six stars. The Egyptians in the age of Senmut measured time with thirty-six decans, each decan representing 10° of the Zodiac rather than the current twelve divisions of the zodiac. The distance between Sothis and the heron is 16 decans (160°) and the distance between Scorpius and Sirius in the night sky is 160°. When Seth blinds Horus, it is because the sun’s position has entered an imaginary line which extends from Scorpius to the earth’s solar system and beyond, which would be the actual path of the serpentine cloud that spawned the myths of Apophis, Seth, Taweret and so many more shapeshifting evil entities.

 

The reverse presentation of the Hippopotamus goddess (Taweret);

According to Brian Pellar, the orientation of the Taweret image is confused more frequently than realized, but that the “correct” orientation is facing right, to the east.[55] The imagery of Senmut’s ceiling – in which Taweret faces left, or west -reinforces the reversed direction of Orion.

 

The northern hemisphere is painted on southern ceiling panel, and the southern hemisphere on the northern panel;

What seems to be artistic license is not consistent with the correct eastern and western alignment of the walls. By reversing the ceiling panels, Senmut seems to be simply saying the Northern and Southern hemispheres were reversed during a polar flip.

 

The absence of Mars from the parade of gods;

Neugebauer and Parker noted in 1969 that Mars was mysteriously missing from the order of the gods seen on the Northern panel.  Mars should have appeared after Jupiter and Saturn, but is nowhere found on the ceiling.[56]This author presents the theory that Mars is not elevated to the status of a god on the Papyrus of Turin until after the reign of Horus and after the events picture on the mural. When the events described on the ceiling occurred, Mars had not yet attained that status, and that is what the ceiling relates.

 

The hieroglyphic story line about the death of Horus (Haroëris) and Osiris;

Inscribed on the ceiling panels -in hieroglyphs- are the thirty-six decans which mark the thirty-six ten-day periods of the year. The decans are marked as the thirty-six stars that run across the edge of the ceiling, with a partial 37th star representing the additional five days of the year. Nearly all of the decans are described in the hieroglyphs as having a controlling deity.[57] The list of deities listed by Senmut is limited to Horus, Isis, Osiris, Seth, the Eye of Horus (Hathor) and the Sons of Horus the Elder(Haroëris). This list makes perfect sense for the ceiling of a tomb in that according to myth, it is Haroëris that is reincarnated as Ra, and Osiris that is Ra resurrected.  Both die at the hands of Seth. It is Isis and Haroëris that give birth to the Four Sons of Horus, and it is Isis that is instrumental in collecting the dismembered parts of her later consort Osiris. The Four Sons were created and given the honorary role of protecting the dead, and escorting them to the afterlife.  While the decans may mark calendar functionality, their descriptive hieroglyphs tell a story of two destructions brought to mankind (represented by the Eye of Horus as the first destruction and Seth as the second) and life after death.

“Horus has cried out because of his Eye, Seth has cried out because of his testicles, and there leaps up the Eye of Horus, who had fallen on yonder side of the Winding Waterway, so that it may protect itself from Seth. Thoth saw it on yonder side of the Winding Waterway when the Eye of Horus leapt up on yonder side of the Winding Waterway and fell on Thoth’s wing on yonder side of the Winding Waterway. O You gods who cross over on the wing of Thoth to yonder side of the Winding Waterway, to the eastern side of the sky, in order to dispute with Seth about this Eye of Horus: I will cross with You upon the wing of Thoth to yonder side of the Winding Waterway, to the eastern side of the sky, and I will dispute with Seth about this Eye of Horus.”[58]

“The Fields of Rushes are filled (with water), and I ferry across on the Winding Waterway; I am ferried over to the eastern side of heaven, I am ferried over to the eastern side of the sky, and my sister is Sothis, my offspring is the dawn-light.”[59]

Imagery from Horus Behdet Myth;

‘The beginning’ of the story painted on the ceiling is thus marked as what is now known as the Scorpius Constellation, the place of origin of the nebula known as Hathor/Taweret/Seth. The spike on the southern panel aligns with the point on the northern panel, and marks the reversal of the procession of the on both panels. This line represents the myth of the Blinding of Horus.  The characters however, seem to represent the recent version of the myth, that of Horus of Behdet. The inclusion in the mural of the harpoon, the hippopotamus, the crocodiles better reflects the myth of Horus of Behdet, which under some versions takes place in northern Egypt when the Hyksos are driven out.[60] It is during this time that Egypt experienced the Asian invasions beginning with the Canaanites, and a weakening of the pharaohs. The struggle with the Asians becomes partially memorialized with the myth of Hours Behdet.

Another battle took place a little later on at Heben, about one hundred and fifty miles south of Memphis, and Horus cut up many of his defeated foes and offered them to the gods. Horus then pursued the enemy into the Delta, and wherever he did battle with them he defeated them. In one place the arch-rebel Set appeared with his followers and fought against Horus and his “blacksmiths,” but Horus drove his spear into Set’s neck, fettered his limbs with his chain, and then cut off his head, and the heads of all his followers.[61]

In retrospect, the mislabeling of Taweret as the Hippopotamus goddess becomes misleading, because the imagery at Edfu is that clearly of a hippopotamus, and not Taweret, and the two are quite distinctly different. Horus of Edfu (aka Horus Behdet) is not mentioned in any text until the Twelfth Dynasty (1990 to 1800 BCE), and should not be considered a primeval myth such as those in the Book of the Dead, older by some 3,000 years.[62] What is found in the Egyptian record for this period is a fairly lengthy description of an apocalyptic scenario in the Papyrus of Ipuwer, of an unknown date, but which can be dated no earlier than 1991 BCE.

what the ancestors foretold has arrived….

the women are barren and none conceive….

poor men have become owners of wealth, and he who could not make sandals for himself is now a possessor of riches.

noblemen are in distress, while the poor man is full of joy. Every town says: “Let us suppress the powerful among us.”

the land (turned upside down and) turns around as does a potter’s wheel….

hair [has fallen out] for everybody, and the man of rank can no longer be distinguished from him who is nobody….

It is the hypothesis of this author that cataclysmic events described in the Papyrus of Impuwer were caused by a complete – or possibly partial – rollover of the earth. . That event later inspired a resurgence of the Cult of Horus of Edfu and the Cult of Sebek. It explains the cataclysm described by Impuwer and the reversal of the seasons described in the Papyrus Anastasi IV:

The Egyptian papyrus known as Papyrus Anastasi IV contains a complaint about gloom and the absence of solar light; it also says: ‘The winter is come as (instead of) summer, the months are reversed and the hours disordered.[63]  

The event described in those two papyri was the inspiration for the ceiling of the Tomb of Senmut. It provided the storyline for the Greek tragedy Atreus and Seneca’s play Thyestes. It becomes the refrain of chorus in Seneca’s Thyestes: “Perchance Typhoeus has thrown off his mountain, and is free once more.” (Lines 808), suggesting a return of Typhon/Seth, a polar flip without the presence of a nebula.  It was the ‘Apocalypse’ of Enoch, occurring 10,000 years after the Enoch’s time. The polar flip circa 2300 BCE (be it full or partial) provided the experience that allowed the scholars and artists of that time to describe more completely the myths of their ancestors.

This interpretation of the resurrection myth, buried for over two thousand years in Senmut’s tomb, is as secretive now as it was then. Only someone like Senmut, with access to all the secrets of the Watchers and priests could create this ceiling. In retrospect, it makes sense that the story was never displayed on more public murals. This story tells the world that the all-powerful god of the priests and Watchers was not all powerful. This is a secret the priesthood could not make pubic, just as the pharaohs could not make public the route to Punt. These were secrets that provided the foundation of their power, position, and wealth. Both pharaohs and priests had a vested interest in the mystery of the resurrection and continuity of the sun god.

 

All rights reserved, © 2016 by E. Peter Matrejek.  Fair Use encouraged, but please acknowledge the book as the reference rather than the web site.

 

Footnotes

[1]       Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page 120.

[2]       James Henry Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Volume II, the Eighteenth Dynasty, History and Mysteries of Man LTD., 1988, Item 353, page 149

[3]       Ibid. Items 271-272, page 112. See page 145 for his role in presenting the treasures along with Nehsi.

[4]       Stephen S. Mehler, From Light into Darkness: The Evolution of Religion in Ancient Egypt, Adventures Unlimited Press, 2005, page 25. Mehler notes that Zep Tepi is a phrase from the wall of Building Texts of the Temple of Horus at Edfu.

[5]       J. Gwyn Griffiths, The Conflict of Seth and Horus, Liverpool University Press, 1960, pages 19-21.

[6]       In some, if not most versions of the victory of Horus over Seth, Seth is not slain, but goes on to be judged- another critical element of the resurrection myth.

[7]       See the works of Dr. Paul A. LaViolette, Ph.D., in particular, Earth Under Fire- Humanity’s Survival of the Ice Age, Bear and Company, Rochester, 1997, 2005,

[8]       Sir Alan Gardiner, The Admonition of an Egyptian Sage, 52, cited in J. Gwyn Griffiths, The Conflict of Seth and Horus, Liverpool University Press, 1960, page 51, Note 1.

[9]       Joseph Eddy Fontenrose, Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins, page 187.

[10]    Tartarus, in myth, gives birth to Typhon. Acknowledging Typhon is the equivalent of Tiâmat, the work of Dr. LaViolette tells us Typhon was seen to emerge from the Galactic Center

[11]     James P. Allen, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Society of Biblical Lit, 2005, page 9.

[12]     Sir Ernest Alfred Wallis Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians: Or, Studies in Egyptian Mythology, Volume 1, Methuen & Company, 1904, page 48.

[13]     M. A. Murray, “The Scorpions of Isis,” Ancient Egyptian Legends, 1920, page 52.

[14]     For consideration: In line with the arrow of the Bow of Ishtar, within the bow itself, one finds VY Canis Major, the largest known ‘hypergiant’ star in the galaxy. Scientists claim it is headtaring for supernova, but because of its size, it will have the impact of 100 supernovae- which far exceeds the magnitude of Sgr A, and is thousands of light years closer to earth.  While the arrow of the bow held by Sagittarius points to the largest supernova in our known past, Ishtar’s Bow holds cocked what may be the largest supernova in humankind’s future. That level of detail cannot be coincidental, which begs the question: how was this known 5,000 years ago?

[15]     D.S. Allan and J. B. Delair, Cataclysm: Compelling Evidence of a Cosmic Catastrophe in 9500 B.C., Bear and Company, 1997, page 209.

[16]     The five types of circumscribed sphere, are used in conjunction with the star charts of Tihuanacu, and usually linked with other constellations, with the exception where it is used as a “breast-plate” for a deity carving. See Chapter XIV for more detail.

[17]     The drawing also prompts or suggests the imagery of the original Titans- the three Hekatonkheires (The One-Hundred Handed.

[18]     The full development of this chronology is addressed in Chapters x-x

[19]     While the Turin Papyrus has a number of issues with ‘completeness,’ those issues affect the chronology prior to that of the primeval gods. That portion of the Papyrus remains intact, and the critical analysis is to correlate the reign of Horus the Younger to timeframe. After that is accomplishes, the backward chronology remains intact.

[20]     Bentley Layton, Studies in the History of Religions, Volume 22, page 34. James Francis Katherinus Hewitt, History and Chronology of the Myth-making Age, J. Parker and Co., 1901, page 260.

[21]     James P. Allen, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Society of Biblical Lit, 2005, page 26 that refers to ‘little Horus.’

[22]     David McIntee, Mark Stacey, The War of Horus and Set, Osprey Publishing, 2013, page 51 “Some of the post-Herodotus creation myths that do survive from the Ptolemaic times …have Osiris being named Horus the Elder before his death….”

[23]    The three primary sun gods, viewed as rebirths of the sun provide the foundation for resurrection and reincarnation theologies.

[24]     See Chapter XIII, Enoch and the Watchers.

[25]     Najovits, Simson R., Egypt, Trunk of the Tree, Vol. I: A Modern Survey of an Ancient Land (Google eBook), Algora Publishing, 2003, page 189.

[26]     J. Gwyn Griffiths, The Conflict of Seth and Horus, Liverpool University Press, 1960, page 5.

[27]     J. Gwyn Griffiths, The Conflict of Seth and Horus, Liverpool University Press, 1960, page 6, refers to Pyramid Text 615 c-d; 24d, and 766d in Kurt, Sethe, Die altaegyptischen Pyramidtext, 1908-1922

[28]     Paul A LaViolette, Ph. D., Earth Under Fire- Humanity’s Survival of the Ice Age, Bear and Company, Rochester, 1997,2005, Page 296.

[29]     John Gwyn Griffiths, The Origins of Osiris and His Cult, Brill, 1980, page 22.

[30]     James P. Allen, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Society of Biblical Lit, 2005, page 9.

[31]     See Brugsch, Inschriften (Astronomische) Leipzig, 1883, page 146. Cited by Budge in The Babylonian Legends of Creation, by E. A. Wallis Budge, 1921, at sacred-texts.com in the footnotes section

[32]     J. Gwyn Griffiths, The Conflict of Seth and Horus, Liverpool University Press, 1960, page 34, Note 4 refers to the Ramesseum Dramatic Papyrus, Section 108, “Horus says to Osiris: I have torn out his leg. The leg of Seth. The four-thredded-web.”

[33]     E. A. Wallis Budge, The Book of Opening the Mouth: Vol. I (Routledge Revivals): The Egyptian Texts with English Translations, Routledge, 2014, page 92.

[34]     E. A. Wallis Budge, Hieroglyphic Vocabulary to the Book of the Dead, Courier Corporation, 2012, page 347.

[35]     James Edward Quibell, Wilhelm Spiegelberg, R. F. E. Paget (Miss.), A. A. Pirie (Miss.), Francis Llewellyn Griffith, The Ramesseum, Quaritch, 1898, page 28.

[36]     E. A. Wallis Budge, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary: With an Index of English Words, King List and Geographical List with Indexes, List of Hieroglyphic Characters, Coptic and Semitic Alphabets, Cosimo, Inc., 2013

[37]     Henk te Velde, Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion, page 98. See also Odwirafo Kwesi Ra Nehem Ptah Akhan, KUKUU-TUNTUM The Ancestral Jurisdiction, page 38.

[38]     Sir Ernest Alfred Wallis Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume 2, P. L. Warner, 1911, page 349.

[39]     Henk te Velde, Herman te Velde, Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion, Brill Archive, 1977, page 86.

[40]     Brian R. Pellar, “The Foundation of Myth,” Sino-Platonic Papers, 219, January 2012.

[41]     Sir Ernest Alfred Wallis Budge, Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection, Volume 2, page 335.

[42]     Ibid., page 321.

[43]     Seth: God of Confusion, pages 86-87.

[44]     J. Gwyn Griffiths, The Conflict of Seth and Horus, Liverpool University Press, 1960, page 81, Note 5, citing the Book of the Dead “O Thoth, heal me as thou didst heal thyself.”

[45]     Sir Ernest Alfred Wallis Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians: Or, Studies in Egyptian Mythology, Volume 1, Methuen & Company, 1904, page 48.

[46]     Wm. J. Hinke, Ph.D. New Boundary Stone of Nebuchadrezzar I. from Nippur, University of Pennsylvania, 1907, page 107. See also Karel van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999, page 628 (associating Ninurta with Sirius).

[47]     Stephanie Dalley, Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, The Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others, page 264.

[48]     Charles James Ball, Light from the East: Or The Witness of the Monuments, Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1899 Page 210.

[49]     Marshall Clagett, Ancient Egyptian Science: Calendars, clocks, and astronomy, page 226.

[50]     Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page 120.

[51]     O. Neugebauer, Richard A. Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts: III.  Decans, Planets, Constellations and Zodiacs, Brown University Press, 1969, page 113.

[52]     Marshall Clagett, Ancient Egyptian Science: Calendars, clocks, and astronomy, page 227.

[53]     A. Pogo, The Astronomical Ceiling-Decoration in the Tomb of Senmut, Isis 14 (2):301-325 (1930), Plate 12.

[54]     Marshall Clagett, Ancient Egyptian Science: Calendars, clocks, and astronomy, page 228.

[55]     Brian R. Pellar, “The Foundation of Myth,” Sino-Platonic Papers, Vol. 219, Jan. 2012, page 13.

[56]     O. Neugebauer, Richard A. Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts: III.  Decans, Planets, Constellations and Zodiacs, Brown University Press, 1969, Page 11

[57]     O. Neugebauer, Richard A. Parker, Egyptian Astronomical Texts: III.  Decans, Planets, Constellations and Zodiacs, Brown University Press, 1969, Pages 106-115.

[58]     Pyramid Texts, §§ 594 – 596, see also Hugh Kennedy, Warfare and Poetry in the Middle East, I.B. Tauris, 2013, page 102. Utterance 359

[59]     Pyramid Texts §§ 340c-d. From R. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (Oxford, 1969), page 72.

[60]     Bentley Layton, “A Site of the Conflict Between Horus and Seth,” Studies in the History of Religions, Volume 22, page 36.

[61]     Brian Brown, Wisdom of the Egyptians: The Story of the Egyptians, the Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, the Ptah-Hotep and the Ke’gemini, the “Book of the Dead,” the Wisdom of Hermes Trismegistus, Egyptian Magic, the Book of Thoth, Brentano’s, 1923, page 13-14

[62]     A. Moret, The Nile and Egyptian Civilization, Routledge, page 108.

[63]     Immanuel Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, Abacus, 1973, (first published 1950), page 132.

 

All rights reserved, © 2016 by E. Peter Matrejek.  Fair Use encouraged, but please acknowledge the book as the reference rather than the web site.

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