Gods of the Western Sunrise

First Age of Man

The initial key to interpreting myths of the western rising sun is the myth of the blinding of Horus the Elder by Seth.[1] In this myth, the sun jumps to the other (yonder) side of the Milky Way (Winding Waterway) which is in what the Egyptians call the Eastern Sky, home of Sothis (Sirius). The first significant geo-magnetic event of this time period was the 180° event of 12,100 BCE, which corresponds to the latter part of the First Age of Man, and the reign of Horus the Elder. This myth puts the sun rise in the region of Orion and the Pleiades, which means that prior to the battle with Seth, it was rising in the West.

“Horus has cried out because of his Eye, Seth has cried out because of his testicles, and there leaps up the Eye of Horus, who had fallen on yonder side of the Winding Waterway, so that it may protect itself from Seth. Thoth saw it on yonder side of the Winding Waterway when the Eye of Horus leapt up on yonder side of the Winding Waterway and fell on Thoth’s wing on yonder side of the Winding Waterway. O You gods who cross over on the wing of Thoth to yonder side of the Winding Waterway, to the eastern side of the sky, in order to dispute with Seth about this Eye of Horus: I will cross with You upon the wing of Thoth to yonder side of the Winding Waterway, to the eastern side of the sky, and I will dispute with Seth about this Eye of Horus.”[2]

“The Fields of Rushes are filled (with water), and I ferry across on the Winding Waterway; I am ferried over to the eastern side of heaven, I am ferried over to the eastern side of the sky, and my sister is Sothis, my offspring is the dawn-light.”[3]

Prior to this, the sun was rising in the West, which should not be surprising. As noted earlier, four ancient historians of Greece documented the western sun rise as well. Sophocles, in his play Atreus wrote “…Zeus wrought a fresh portent: he changed the course of the sun, causing it to rise in the east, and not (as it was said to have done previously) in the west. …Sophocles and Euripides both related the story in substantially the same for as that in which it is given by Apollodorus. This inference is entirely consistent with Plato….”[4] The inference is also consistent with The Lost Book of Enoch, when Enoch refers to a time when the sun did not rise in the east.  The ruins and carvings of Tihuanacu testify to that event happening in roughly the same timeframe that the sediment data suggests. Mörner’s data puts the change in the rise of the sun from West to East at 12,100 BCE. This marks the beginning of the reign of Agathodaemon serpent in the Turin Papyrus.  This is the time when the children of Ouranos disappear in Tartarus (Underworld), and when Phaeton (Cygnus) crashes Helios’s chariot into the horizon bringing an end to the First Age of Man. Also in this period, humankind experiences the first impact of the dark nebula from Sgr A*, with 12,000 BCE Interstellar Dust Incursion peak. This is seen as putting the black mask over the eye of Black Tezcatlipoca, and when Seth as a ‘pig’ removes the Eye of Horus. It also correlates to the myth of Ra sending Hathor – the Eye of Horus, to destroy the rebellious mesu betesh and humankind. This, in turn, correlates to Sumerian, Egyptian and Mayan Creation myths describing the god’s first destruction of humankind. It is at that time, when disturbances of Sgr A* cause the earth to flip 180°, and the sun is reported by the Egyptians as rising in the East, as deemed by Zeus.

Sumerian myths describe the transition from Alalu to An at the beginning of the First Age noting that Alalu fled to the Underworld when replaced by An. At the beginning of the Second Age, (in one version) Enki replaces Alalu as the god of the Underworld, at which point a calamity is documented:

Soon the hue of the skies was changing, from brightness to reddish it was turning.

A sight never seen before their eyes was unfolding: The Sun, as a red ball, on the horizon was disappearing!

Fear seized the heroes, of a Great Calamity they were afraid.[5]


Nine years later Enlil becomes primary solar deity. The valuable information in his added information is that the solar event that was the driver for a transitional god (Enki) lasted for nine years. The nine years is within the ten-year average duration of excursions that Mörner found in his research.

In the Hittite version of the overthrow of Anu, Kumarbi bites off and digests the testicles of Anu rather than spilling the blood and testicles, and then Kumarbi gives birth to the storm god Teshub, the Aranzah River, two frightening gods and a noble named Tasmisu. In the Hittite version “Anu flees into heaven but is chased by Kumarbi…Kumarbi rushed after him, seized Anu by the feet/legs, and dragged him downward from the sky. He (Kumarbi) bit his (Anu’s) loins (i.e. his genitals), and his (Anu’s) manhood united with Kumarbi inside like bronze.”[6] Here again, the student of myth finds the imagery of a rapidly falling sky, exactly what would be expected in a polar flip, as well as the imagery of a cloud nebula swallowing rounded (genitalia), celestial bodies – the interplay of cataclysmic forces!


Second Age of Man

Continuing the analysis with Mörner’s data, (Figure 70), after the sun rises in the east, the pole begins a period of ‘Equatorial Wander’ from 11,300 to 10,300 BCE, which begins at the mid-point of the Second Age of Man. This is the period in mythology most commonly referred to as ‘The Rebellion of the Gods,’ where the stars and planets are not adhering to the natural order, and have – in Enoch’s words – ‘transgressed the commandment of the Lord.’  During this period, the North Pole wanders across 160° from east to west and back, while wandering 120° to the south and back north, and in the midst of that wander, there is a period of great instability, or rapid drifting. (Figure 70)  It should not be considered coincidence that Mörner’s data for 11,000 to 12,000 BCE puts India well into the Antarctic circle close to the timeframe estimated by Bâl Gangâdhar Tilak, who believed that India, in ancient times, was situated at the North Pole, because passages in the Rig Veda suggested abnormally long nights.

Tilak did not think of life at the Pole as having been one of unmitigated delight: the night, though far less than six months long, was not pleasant. The Rig Veda speaks of darkness as sheltering the enemies of Indra: there are prayers that one may safely reach the end of night whose “other boundary is not seen.” A normal night of a few hours hardly answers to such a description.[7]

It was Tilak who suggested that only with an understanding of India’s polar origins could Devayâna (Way of the Gods – devas) and the Pitriyâna (Way of the Ancestors –pitris) be understood.  With the ancestors – pitris -being the primeval gods, and the new gods being the Indo-European Titans – devas – the star paths to heaven became very different.

At the mid-point of the Second Age, Itztlacoliuhqui (one of the four faces of Quetzalcoatl[8]) appears as a transitional god. Itztlacoliuhqui is known as the sun that ‘went backwards.”[9] He is also known as the ‘frost god’[10] which may seem odd for a sun god of Central America. One source has his name interpreted as “Everything Has Become Bent by Means of Coldness.”[11] His reputation in mythology is one of punishment for sin, and he represents the underworld.[12]  In referring to Mörner’s data for the middle of the Second Age (circa 11,300 BCE, the Port Dover Geomagnetic Excursion), that period finds the north pole in the region of 90°West and 20°South, which would put Central America in what is now considered the Tundra region, explaining the association of Itztlacoliuhqui with frost.

Also of note, at the end of the Second Age is a period of frenzied chaos, represented by the Mesoamerican myth the 400 Centzon Huitznahua, (Centzon Totochtin)- gods of drunken chaos. This myth tells us that during this period, the stars made a complete journey around the sky, returning to their original point of departure, but behaving much like drunken rabbits. In this myth, Mixcoatl, the cloud serpent gives birth to Patecatl, another of the four faces of Quetzalcoatl (Primary sun god of the Second Age of Man.).[13] Patecatl becomes leader of the Centzon Huitznahua, only to be chased back to their original place by Huitzilopochtli, the third of the four faces of Quetzalcoatl. This myth should be associated with the geo-magnetic excursion of 11,040 BCE, towards the end of the Second Age of Man.

According to the Turin Papyrus, the middle of the Second Age begins the reign of Khronos, meaning this same event reflects Kronos slicing open Ouranos, releasing his brothers, and banishing Ouranos to the Underworld. There is an extensive period of chaos which precedes Kronos’ castration of Ouranos. According to Philo of Byblos, Kronos deposed Ouranos thirty-two years prior to the castration, and during that thirty-two years, Ouranos attacked Kronos twice.[14] This marks a thirty-two-year period of four polar excursions: the deposing of Ouranos, two counter-attacks, and the castration of Ouranos. It also clarifies that the castration event represented by two round objects falling to earth was a separate event from the polar rollover. This period of geo-magnetic instability, in western literature, begins the Rebellion of the Gods.[15]  The Egyptian corollary is when Horus castrates Seth, just as Kronos castrates Ouranos. Both events involve the imagery of a long blade, and it seems not a coincidence that the Aztec god Itztlacoliuhqui is known as the god of the ‘curved obsidian knife.’ These three myths for the same event are best explained by the detail provided by the Theogony.  The castration of Ouranos results in his testicles being thrown into ocean, and his blood spread across earth. From these droppings (or Blood Rain) are created the Giants, the Meliai, the Erinyes (The Furies of the Underworld), and Aphrodite. There is however, a ‘long gestation’ -undefined other than long.[16] That long period, calculated as per Exhibit IV, is approximately 800 years.

The end of the Second Age of Man is punctuated with a 100-fold spike in the platinum levels of the Greenland ice cores. This would usually be attributed to meteorites, but no craters have been found.[17] Remarkably, the platinum dust peak in the ice core lasts approximately 30 years, from 10,910 to 10,880 BCE.[18] A second form of evidence – a thin layer of glass sediment caused by heat in the range of 1,700 to 2,200 degrees Celsius (3,100 to 3,600 degrees Fahrenheit) – has been found in multiple locations, suggesting there had to be at least three major components (chunks of meteor) of the impact. Because the Theogony tells us the blood or Ouranos fell into the ocean, and because the meteor shower falls into the timeframe of the birth of the Giants and Aphrodite, it is best to conclude that while the darkening of Ra’s Eye was a nebula related event, the castration event was a meteor or meteor shower. While related in mythology, the two events appear to not be directly related to each other. Never-the-less, at the end of the Second Age there is an immense destruction: super volcanoes, heat from meteors able to create glass across the globe, visible plasma discharges and solar flaring, which taken together, creates a multi-faceted extinction event from 11,100 to 10,900 BCE.

The death of Ouranos, and the birth of the Meliai, provides an interesting note regarding the Third Age of Man, the Bronze Age. According to Hesiod:

Father Zeus made a third race of mortal men, a bronze race from the meliai, in no way like the silver race but terrible and strong.[19]

And then there was made the Third Race–the Race of Bronze. They were a race great of stature, terrible and strong. Their armour was of bronze, their swords were of bronze, their implements were of bronze, and of bronze, too, they made their houses. No great span of life was theirs, for with the weapons that they took in their terrible hands they slew one another. And so they passed away; they went down under the Earth and they left no name that men might know them by.[20]

The Meliai, who were put in the Underworld by Ouranos, gives humankind in the Mediterranean the Bronze Age, and then disappear, back to the Underworld, leaving no trace behind them. This revelation is consistent with one of the major premises of Enoch and the Watchers that the founders of western civilization departed from Tihuanacu – the Underworld – at the end of the Second Age. By that time, the civilization of Tihuanacu had already mastered an ability to generate bronze, noted in the bronze clamps in the temple stones (see Appendix IV: In Defense of Posnansky’s Dating.)


Third Age of Man

The Third Age of Man begins with the geo-magnetic excursion, earthquakes and flooding of 10,700 BCE, representing the death of the Second Age gods. This is the point at which the Seven Sages, and the Shemsu-Hor are sent from Tihuanacu and take the refinements of language and knowledge to the rest of the world. It would seem these emissaries sailed around the horn of Africa, with some founding the land often erroneously thought of as Punt (on the Red Sea), and others sailing up the Tigris and Euphrates. This speculation is based on the earliest record of corn in Egypt, being traced to the Red Sea ports.[21] Celestial chaos continues for 300 years. This is a time when the ancients start traveling back to the Underworld and myths of Osiris, Inanna, Tammuz, Telipinu, Adamu and Gilgamesh traveling to the underworld are the dominant theme in the opening of the Third Age. The travels of Enoch to the Underworld are calculated to have occurred during this age. The gods of the Second Age had failed to maintain order. They had disappeared from sight, and been replaced by transitional gods. The dark demons that dominated the sky in the Second Age battled the new solar gods who had also stumbled, died and been reborn. The great Celestial Serpent known as Seth, Tiâmat, Typhon, or Seven Macaw had come closer to Earth, bringing hellfire (extreme solar flaring) and acid rains.

Khronos was overthrown by Zeus. Ra was killed by Isis and his powers passed to Osiris.  Osiris was killed by the poison of a serpent placed on his path by Isis, or killed by a scorpion sting (with the understanding that Isis is the Scorpion goddess.)  The dark cloud nebula now represented by the Constellation Serpens, reached from its origin in Scorpius (next to the Galactic Center) all the way to Orion and the Pleiades as told by the forefathers of the Inca. Seth became a transitional solar god representing the new Egyptian sun with the passing of Osiris, but a shift in the poles brought the sunrise back to the east, and when it did, Osiris was resurrected as Horus the Younger. This new god was stronger than the old, because the sunrise on the vernal equinox had put the sun in conjunction with the Galactic Center, a sight of unparalleled brilliance. The myth of Horus the Younger killing Seth is documented in the Papyrus Leiden I, and as found in the Papyrus Jumilhac.

After he had cut out his fore-leg (ḫƿš) he threw it into the sky. Spirits guard it there: The Great Bear of the northern sky. The Great Hippopotamus goddess keeps hold of it, so that it can no longer sail in the midst of the gods.[22]

With the foreleg representing what the world now refers to as the Big Dipper in the northern skies, this represents the second half of the complete rotation of the earth. The blinding and death of Osiris marks the jump of the sun from a western sunrise to an eastern sunrise, during which The Great Bear would move from the southern to northern sky. With Horus the Younger killing Seth, that myth complements the sun’s returns to an eastern sunrise and the Big Dipper is returned to the north!

A hundred years later, the world experienced the Gothenburg Geomagnetic Flip, generally known as the Battle of the Gods, Battle of the Titans, or Ragnarök. One hundred years after that, Enoch referred to the stars imprisoned at the South Pole as a result of this battle. The instability did not end until 9,650 BCE, with a 200° geomagnetic excursion marker to represent the collapse of the skies prior to the Great Deluge witnessed by Noah. This marked the end of the Third Age: an end to Tiâmat and Typhon, and end to the Rebellion of the Gods, the beginning of resurrection, eternal life and the son of god in the form of Horus the Younger, Marduk and their contemporaries.

Transitional Gods of the Rising Sun

During the turmoil of the First Three Ages of Man, humankind recorded a significant number of ‘lesser’ solar gods.  Some of these lesser gods took on the dubious (and less than informative) attribute of being “an aspect” of the primary deity, while the qualities of the aspect were little understood.  Some of them – like Ophion or Dionysus – are virtually ignored in the lineages of the primary gods. The role of these lesser gods is obscured by the shortness of their reign, and the absence of context with which to define them. With these lesser gods being placed in a period of time and identified with physical phenomena, their role becomes clear. After the sun and stars were seen to leave their path due to polar drift, new gods were sought to replace failed gods.

  • Dionysus, Isis and Huitzilopochtli ruled the Earth following a short period during which the stars and humankind behaved as if they were in a drunken frenzy. Dionysus had a reputation similar to that of Huitzilopochtli – “chorus leader of the fire-breathing stars…”[23]
  • Dionysus was killed (torn apart) by the Titans, who had imprisoned Zeus, suggesting Dionysus himself may have been a bright nebula phenomenon;
  • Isis poisoned Ra and stole his power, allowing Seb (Sebek) to rule the world. At the same time that Kronos deposed his father Ouranos, allowing Ophion to rule the Earth during a thirty-two-year period between the reign of Ouranos and Kronos. Ouranos and Ra are seen as failing gods in the onset of the effects of Sgr A*. which brought about the end of the First Age of Man, but they are replaced by Seb and Ophion who are rarely mentioned on temple carvings or in mythology; and
  • Sokar (Seker) is known as the sun that replaces a dying, old sun known as Ptah.[24] In the Papyrus of Ani, Ptah evolves to become Ptah-Seker. When the path of the sun changes once again, the name evolves to Ptah-Seker-Asar (Osiris).[25]

The list is not meant to be exhaustive, but rather demonstrative. A more definitive study is warranted because civilizations in different parts of the world documented similar ‘aspects’ for transitional gods as they did for primary gods. These transitional gods are listed in Table 11.

All rights reserved, © 2016 by E. Peter Matrejek.  Fair Use encouraged, but please acknowledge the book as the reference rather than the web site.




[1]       Critical requirement here is to clarify that the myth does refer to Horus the Elder, uncle of the Horus the Younger, son of Osiris. There seems way too much confusion in the myth as a result of casual research on this which implies the myth involves Horus the Younger.

[2]       Pyramid Texts, §§ 594 – 596, see also Hugh Kennedy, Warfare and Poetry in the Middle East, I.B. Tauris, 2013, page 102.

[3]       Pyramid Texts §§ 340c-d. From R. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts (Oxford, 1969), page 72.

[4]       Richard Claverhouse Jebb, W. G. Headlam, A. C. Pearson, The Fragments of Sophocles, Cambridge University Press, Apr 1, 2010, pages 5-6.

[5]       Lost Book of Enki, Third Tablet, page 74. Sitchin translates the calamity as a sunset, which was a “new” experience for the Annunaki, but if the reader does not accept the extraterrestrial premise of Sitchin, the tablet refers to a different type of solar cataclysm.

[6]       Dennis R.M. Cambell, On the Theogony of Hesiod and the Hurrians: An Exploration of the Dual Natures of Tessub and Kumarbi, University of Chicago.com, page 7.

[7]       Goodwin, Joscelyn, Arktos- The Polar Myth, Adventures Unlimited Press, 1996, page 33, and all of Chapter 3. See also Bâl Gangâdhar Tilak, The Arctic Home in the Vedas, Being also a new key to the interpretation of many Vedic Texts and Legends, Poona: The Kesari, 1903, pages 125-128.

[8]       Daniel Garrison Brinton, American Hero-Myths: A Study in the Native Religions of the Western Continent, Library of Alexandria, 1970.

[9]       Journal for the History of Astronomy, Volume 24, Science History Publications, 1993, page 31.  “The commentators of Telleriano-Remensis and Vaticanus A (3738-RIOS) mention that Itzlacoliuhqui is a star that goes backward.”

[10]     Susan Milbrath, Heaven and Earth in Ancient Mexico: Astronomy and Seasonal Cycles in the Codex Borgia, University of Texas Press, 2013, page 65.

[11]     J. Ricard Andrews, Introduction to Classical Nahuatl (Revised ed.). University of Oklahoma Press, 2003.

[12]     Jeanette F. Peterson, Flora and fauna imagery in Pre-Columbian cultures: iconography and function, B.A.R., 1983, page 127.

[13]     Daniel Garrison Brinton, American Hero-Myths: a Study in the Native Religions of the Western Continent, Library of Alexandria, 1970.

[14]     One needs to refer to the Philo of Byblos version of this myth to get this detail. Hesiod, Theogony, M.L. West editor, Clarendon Press, 1966, pages 24 to 25. Albert I. Baumgarten, The Phoenician History of Philo of Byblos: A Commentary, Brill Archive, 1981, pages 210-212.

[15]     Yves Bonnefoy, Wendy Doniger, Greek and Egyptian Mythologies, University of Chicago Press, 1992, page 74.

[16]     Yves Bonnefoy, Greek and Egyptian Mythologies, University of Chicago Press, Nov 15, 1992, page 73.

[17]     Michail I. Petaev, Shichun Huang, Stein B. Jacobsen, Alan Zindler (2013). “Large Pt anomaly in the Greenland ice core points to a cataclysm at the onset of Younger Dryas”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110 (32): pages 12917–12920; Michail I. Petaev, Shichun Huang, Stein B. Jacobsen, Alan Zindler, Large Platinum Anomaly in the GISP2 Ice Core: Evidence for a Cataclysm at the Bolling Allerod/Younger Dryas Boundary, Paper: 44th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 2013.

[18]     There has been significant objection to a Younger Dryas impact event, suggesting lack of evidence. The impact described by Petaev et al is a different impact than the North American event that is objected to., with a sub-1km object, with plenty of ice core data- at least 13 cores. For argument against a Clovis Impact Event, see M. Boslough et al, Arguments and Evidence against a Younger Dryas Impact Event, Climates, Landscapes and Civilizations, Geophysical Monograph Series 198, 2012. “New evidence supporting theory of extraterrestrial impact found,” June 11, 2012, http://phys.org/news/2012-06-evidence-theory-extraterrestrial-impact.html#jCp

[19]     Jennifer Larson, Greek Nymphs: Myth, Cult, Lore, Oxford University Press.

[20]     Padraic Colum, Orpheus: Myths of the World, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1930, page 65.

[21]     Gerald Massey, A Book of the Beginnings, Volume 1 (Google eBook), Cosimo, Inc., 2007, page 453.

[22]     H. Te Velde, Seth, God of Confusion: A Study of His Role in Egyptian Mythology and Religion, Brill, 1977, pages 86-88.

[23]     Charles Segal, Dionysiac Poetics and Euripides’ Bacchae, Princeton University Press, 1997, page 14.

[24]     J. S. Gordon, Land of the Fallen Star Gods: The Celestial Origins of Ancient Egypt, Inner Traditions / Bear & Co, Aug 11, 2013, eBook, no pagination. E. A. Wallis Budge, From Fetish to God in Ancient Egypt, page 169. Budge informs us Ptah Seker was a dying sun.

[25]     Sir Ernest Alfred Wallis Budge, The papyrus of Ani: a reproduction in facsimile, Volume 1, Medici Society; New York: G. P. Putnam, 1913, pages 171-172.


All rights reserved, © 2016 by E. Peter Matrejek.  Fair Use encouraged, but please acknowledge the book as the reference rather than the web site.